The Earth of Israel
... a ground that milk and honey flows...
Israel is a small and narrow country on the coast suroriental of the Mediterranean. It entered the history approximately 3.500 years ago, when the Jewish people left his form of life nómade, was established in the Earth of Israel and turned into a nation. Throughout the years, the Earth has been known by many names - Eretz Israel (Earth of Israel); Zion, one of the mounts of Jerusalem that has spent to mean both the city and the Earth of Israel in its entirety; Palestine, derived from Philistia and used for the first time by the Romans; the Engaged Earth; and the Holy Land, to mention only some. Nevertheless, for most of the Israelis nowadays, the country is, simply, Haaretz - the Earth. Almost 6,5 million persons live at present in Israel. More than five million are Jewish; most of other sound Arabs. A wide bogey of forms of life characterizes to the country, which goes from the religious thing to the secular thing, from the modern thing to the traditional thing, from the urban thing to the rural thing, from the community thing to the individual thing.
Geography and Climate
Small surface; short distances The surface of Israel inside his borders and lines of cessation of fire, including the areas under Palestinian self-government, is 27.800 km2. Elongated and narrow, it has approximately 470 km long and 135 km in his most wide point. The country limits with the Lebanon to the north, Syria to the North-East, Jordan to the east, Egypt to the south-west and the Mediterranean Sea on the west.
Mountains and flatness, fertile and desert fields are separated by a distance of only a few minutes of trip. The breadth of the country, from the Mediterranean, in the west, up to the Dead Sea, in the East, can be covered in motorcar in nearly 90 minutes; and from Metula, in the distant north, up to Eilat, in the south end of the country, it is taken about 6 hour.
The country can be divided in four geographical regions: three parallel stripes that run from north on south and a big arid zone in south half of the territory.
The coastal plain runs parallel to the Mediterranean and it is formed by a sandy coast bordered by fertile agricultural fields that penetrate up to 40 km to the interior of the country. In the north, the coast turns out to be interrupted by steep steep rocks of sandy stone and lime that they fall down on the sea. The coastal plain lodges more than half of 6,5 million inhabitants of Israel, and includes important urban centers, ports of deep waters, most of the national industry and big part of his agriculture and of his tourist facilities.
Several mountain ranges cover the country along. In the North-East, the basaltic sceneries of the Heights of the Golán, formed by volcanic eruptions, dominate the Vale of the Jula. The mounts of the Galilee, principally consisted of limestone and dolomite, reach a height from 500 to 1.200 meters on the sea level. Small permanent watercourses and a relatively high rain precipitation, they support the green space during the whole year. The inhabitants of the Galilee and of the Golán, devote themselves to the agriculture, to companies related to the tourism and to the light industry.
The Vale of Jezreel, which separates the mountains of the Galilee from those of Samaria, is the richest agricultural area of Israel, cultivated by several cooperative communities (kibutzim and moshavim). The wavy mounts of Judea and Samaria present a mosaic of rocky summits and fertile vales, splashed with centenary plantations of silver olive trees. The hillsides staggered in the shape of patios, already cultivated from the ancient times, have happened to be a natural part of the scenery. The population concentrates principally in small urban centers and big peoples.
The Néguev, which constitutes approximately half of the surface of the country, is inhabited scantly, his population bases on an agricultural and industrial economy. More on the south, the Néguev happens to be an arid zone characterized by scrubs of sandy stone and flatness, and abounds in gorges and wadíes in that the winter alluviums often provoke floods. Continuing towards the south, this region gives place to an area of smooth and steep craters and rocky plains, in which the climate is drier and the highest mounts. Three craters provoked by the erosion, the biggest of which it has approximately 8 km wide per 35 km long, penetrate deeply in the earth's crust, leaving at sight a wide scale of colors and types of rock. In the south end of the Néguev, close to Eilat in the Red Sea, it has raised summits of gray and red granite, cut by deep gullets and steep rocks with coloring and radiant sandstone strata under the torrid sky.
The Lake Kinéret, protected by the mounts of the Galilee and of the Golán, is to 212 m. under the sea level and it is 8 km wide for 21 km long. The Kinéret is the biggest lake of Israel and it serves like the principal water reservation of the country. Along his coasts there are some important historical and religious places, as well as agricultural communities, fishing companies and tourist facilities.
The Rio Jordan
The Vale of the Jordan and the Aravá, which they spread along the country for the East, there are a part of the Syrian-African big depression that cracked the crust of the globe millions of years ago. The north part is extremely fertile; the south part is semi-arid. Agriculture, fishing, light industry and tourism constitute the principal sources of revenue of this area.
The river Jordan runs from north on south along this depression, lowering more than 700 m. during his 300 km route. Fed by streams of the Mount Hermón, the river continues for the fertile Vale of the Jula up to the Lake Kinéret (Mar de Galilea) and continues winding along the Vale of the Jordan up to ending in the Dead Sea. Although his wealth grows at the rainy station, the river in general is quite narrow and vadeable.
The Aravá, the savanna of Israel, begins to the south of the Dead Sea and spreads up to the Gulf of Eilat, the exit of Israel al Mar Rojo. The adaptation of sophisticated skills of cultivation to climatic conditions in which the annual precipitation mediated is less than 25 mm. and the temperatures in summer reach 40 degrees centigrade, it has made possible to produce fruits and vegetables out of station, principally for the exportation. The subtropical Gulf of Eilat, known by his waters deep blue, his reefs of corals and his exotic marine fauna, is in the south end of the Aravá
The Dead Sea, the rock bottom of the Earth, approximately to 400 meters under the sea level, is in the south end of the Vale of the Jordan. His water, which counts at the highest level of salinity and of thickness in the world, is rich in potassium, magnesium and bromine, as well as in salt of table and industrial salt. The natural rhythm of recession of the Dead Sea has hastened in the last years, due to his high valuation of evaporation (1,6 m. a year) and to the deviation projects in big scale realized by Israel and Jordan to answer to his water needs, which have provoked a reduction of 75 % in the water quantity that enters to the sea. As result of it, the level of the waters of the Dead Sea has gone down in approximately 10,6 m. from 190. A project is studied to join the Dead Sea with the Mediterranean by means of a channel and a system of pumping, which can help natural to that the Dead Sea recovers his dimensions and level.
The climate of Israel fluctuates from moderated to tropical, with the abundant sun. There are two predominant stations: a period of rainy winter from November until May, and a station of dry summer that spreads during five remaining months. The rain precipitation is relatively high in the north and center of the country, very much minor in the north of the Néguev, and practically void in the south area. The regional conditions change greatly, with humid summers and soft winters on the coast; dry summers and winters moderately cold in the mountainous areas; very warm summers and agreeable winters in the Vale of the Jordan; and semi-desert conditions during the whole year in the Néguev. The climatic phenomena range from the end of sporadic snow in the mountainous regions up to periodic dry winds that provoke very warm temperatures, particularly in spring and autumn.
Located in the rim of a desert belt, Israel has always suffered from water scarcity. Archaeological discoveries reveal that thousands of years behind the inhabitants of the region were already worrying for the water conservation, as they it demonstrate a variety of so much systems destined to join and to store the rainwater as to transport it back and forth.
The annual whole of renewable water resources amounts to nearly 1.700 million cubic meters, of which about 65 % is used for the irrigation and the rest for urban and industrial intentions. The water sources of the country include the river Jordan, the Lake Kinéret, and a few small rivers. There are used also natural sources and reservations of groundwaters, which development is controlled to prevent his depletion and the increase of his salinity. All the fresh water sources having been exploited to the maximum, are developing methods to make use of marginal water resources, by means of the recycling of the served waters, the sowing of clouds and the desalination of the sea water.
The National Aqueduct
To overcome regional disparities in the water availability, most of the sources of fresh water of the country has joined in an integrated network. His principal artery, the National Aqueduct, finished in 1964, transports the water from the north and the center, by means of a network of gigantic pipes, aqueducts, open channels, reservoirs, tunnels, dams and stations of pumping, on the semi-arid south.
The animal and vegetable life of Israel is rich and varied, in consequence, partly to the geographical place of the country, which is in the conjunction of three continents. More than 2.00 species of plants have been identified, from the Alpine ones in the hillsides of the Hermón, up to the species of the Sahara in the Aravá, in the south. Israel is the north limit for the presence of plants like the papyrus cane, and the south limit for others like the peony of brilliant choral red color.
Natural forests consisted principally of pines cover part of the Galilee, Monte Carmel, and other mountainous areas. In the spring, the cistos and the thorny brooms predominate with his colors over rosé, white and yellow. The woodbine slides on the shrubs, and enormous trees plataneros provide with shade the slopes of fresh water in the Galilee. In the mounts of the Néguev, a big quantity of Atlantic pistacheros they provide a well-known dramatic art along the dry vales; palm trees date palms grow in the places in which there is enough groundwater.
Many flowers of cultivation, like the iris, the lily, the tulip and the hyacinth, have relatives between the wild flowers of Israel. Shortly after the first rains in October - November, the country is covered with a dense green carpet that lasts up to the return of the dry station. Cyclamens roses and targets, and red, white and purple anemones bloom between December and March, and the blue lupins and the yellow marigolds a little later. Many of the plants of Israel, like the saffron and the escila are geófitas, that they accumulate food in bulbs or pipes and bloom at the end of the summer. On the fields there flutter about 135 varieties of butterflies, of brilliant colors and drawings.
More than 500 different species of birds can be observed in Israel. Some of them, like the common bulbul, are resident birds; others, like the bald-coot and the starling, invernan here, taking delight with the food that provide the breeding grounds of fish and the agricultural lands. Million birds migrate two times a year along the country, providing a magnificent opportunity for the serious observation of the birds. Buharros, pelicans and other big and small migratory birds cover the sky in March and October. Some species of pillage, like eagles and hawks, and small songbirds like the cerrojillo, do his nest in Israel.
Delicate gazelles run about for the mountains; foxes, wild cats and other mammals live in the wooded areas; ibexes nubios with his majestic horns jump on the crags in the desert; chameleons, snakes and lizards are some of 100 native species of reptiles of the country.
Preservation of the Nature
In an effort to preserve the natural environment, severe laws have been promulgated to protect the nature and the wild life, being illegal to cut inclusive the most common flowers that grow to the edge of the ways. In charge of the improvement of the preservation of the nature, the Direction of Parks and Protection of the Nature in Israel (INPA), works for the landscape protection and the natural environment. Under the supervision of the Direction, there have been established more than 00 nature reserves and 65 National parks to everything long of the country, which include approximately 1000 km2. About 20 of these reservations have been adapted for use of the public being provided with centers for visitors, ways and footpaths, which more than two million persons attract per year. One of the most important regions of Israel - Monte Carmel - was declared a reservation biosphere in the frame of the Program of the Man and the Biosphere of UNESCO.
Hundreds of plants and animals, including oaks, palm trees, gazelles, ibexes, leopards and vultures have been declared protected species, and special rescue operations have begun to assure the continuity of a series of endangered species. Feeding stations have been established for wolves, hyenas and foxes, as well as sure places so that they shelter the birds. The eggs of marine turtles are gathered regularly from the coast of the Mediterranean and they placed in incubators; the young turtles are returned to the sea. With more than 500 million migratory birds that cross the country every year, Israel has turned into a center of observation of birds of world fame and into a focal point of investigation and international cooperation. The careful supervision of the routes of migration of the birds helps to avoid shocks between planes and birds.
Inspired in a deep sense of the patrimony, efforts have been realized to preserve and to re-introduce plants and animals that existed in the Biblical times and that disappeared of the region or they cover extinction danger. Has Neot Kedumim, a scenery reservation in the center of the country, destined to assemble and to preserve the existing plants mentioned in the Bible, planted gardens with the native flora of diverse geographical areas of the Earth of Israel on the antig? age. The projects of wild life, Jai Bar, were established in the Aravá and in Monte Carmel to re-introduce the species of animals that in other times were running about for the mountains and the deserts of the Earth of Israel to his ancient natural habitats. The species that are growing up at present include ostriches, Persian roebucks, órixes, onagros and Somali wild donkeys.
The public conscience by the preservation of the nature is promoted in the schools and between the population in general by means of holding a permit excursions, publications and campaigns of information. The Society for the Protection of the Nature in Israel, the biggest environmental organization of the country, has spread tens campaigns against the destruction of ecosystems and sceneries due to imprudent developments. His educational program includes 24 schools in area, 10 centers of urban nature and 0 local branches.
Keren Kayemet - Jewish National Fund (FNJ) was founded (1901) with the target to acquire grounds for Jewish agricultural establishments, as well as to carry out development projects, redemption of grounds and afforestation in the Earth of Israel. When Israel obtained his independence (1948), the FNJ, with gathered funds of the Jews of the whole world, he had bought approximately 96.000 hectares, most of which must be redeemed after centuries of negligence and abandonment, and had planted about 4,5 million trees on the rocky hillsides of the country. Nowadays, more than 200 million trees, in forests and wooded areas they cover about 120.000 hectares and provide to the Israelis a wide variety of opportunities of recreation outdoors and appreciation of the nature. Although it continues his afforestation activities and mantención of the forests, the FNJ also develops parks and recreation places, prepares the infrastructure for new establishments, carries out diverse water compilation projects and he is an active partner in the efforts of conservation of the environment in the whole country.
The rapid growth of the population and the expansion of the agriculture and the industry have contributed to an environmental degradation, especially in the coastal zone, where there concentrates more than half of the population of Israel and most of his industry. To fight the pollution of the coastal stripe of the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, Israel has adopted a many-sided program of examination, legislation, execution of the law, beach cleanliness and international cooperation, principally inside the frame of the Plan of Action Mediterranean.
Under conditions of water scarcity and intensive development, the decrease of the water quality is a critical problem. The principal causes of the contamination of the groundwaters are the chemical fertilizers, the pesticides, the penetration of sea water and domestic and industrial served waters. High priority has been granted to the water treatment served to prevent his effects on the environment and the public health and to develop an additional water source for the agricultural irrigation. A water administration plan recently pass stipulates the desalination of served and saline waters, the progress of the treatment of waters served for his recycling efficient and the production and water conservation. There has begun a program of rehabilitation of rivers contaminated with the target to transform them into fresh water sources with ecological and recreational value. The drinkable water quality is supervised definitely.
The factors that affect the quality of the air include the energy production, the transports and the industry - the three have increased dramatically in the last years. The use of fuel of little sulfide for the energy production has helped to reduce greatly the concentrations of dioxide of sulfide, but the emission of pollutants related to the increase of the traffic of vehicles has increased significantly. There have interfered the unleaded petrol, the catalytic converters and the diesel oil of low content of sulfide to mitigate the problem. An alertness system at national level offers information updated about the quality of the air in the whole country. Israel also fulfills the international resolutions regarding the depletion of the ozone and the climate changes.
The rapid growth of the population, the standard of living and the consumption have taken to significant increases of the solid garbage - in order of 4 - 5 % per year. Most of the illegal dumps of garbage of the country have been eliminated in the last years and replaced by terraces that do not constitute an environmental threat. Efforts are done to achieve an integrated administration of the solid garbage that includes the reduction, the recycling, the recovery and the incineration. Recent recycling regulations will facilitate the step to a technology with little or nothing of garbage.
The implementation of an environmental legislation is of the first priority together with the environmental education, from the preschool up to the university. The public takes part in the implementation of the environmental law like trustees of cleanliness and well-being of animals, reporting about violations of the above mentioned laws. More and more economic instruments are used to promote the improvement of the environmental quality, be already in the shape of financial benefits to the industries that they invest in the prevention of the contamination, or in the shape of taxes and fines to those who contaminate. Efforts are invested for the resources conservation and the prevention of the contamination in all the economic sectors.
Communications: Israel is connected to the principal international networks of transference of commercial, financial and academic information, and is completely integrated to the systems of international communications by means of submarine lines of optical fibre and of satellites. The country occupies a high place, in base per cápita, in telephone, computing lines and Internet users.
Israel is one of few world countries that is provided with 100 per cent of digitization of his telephone network, what allows to offer the most advanced services to the subscribers. Also, Israel is provided with one of the highest world valuations of penetration of the cell phone, with one of these phones in more than 50 % of the hearths.
The postal service works to everything long of Israel and connects it with most of the countries abroad. The Philatelic Service has expressed more than 1.500 stamps; many of the most well-known graphic artists of Israel have helped to create these "cards of visit" of the country, some of which have already done to themselves creditors of the status of outstanding figures and they are much quoted by the philatelists.
In a country with short distances, the motorcars, buses and trucks constitute the principal transport way. In the last years it has extended and improved the road network extensively to answer to the rapid increase in the vehicles quantity and to achieve that even the most remote communities are accessible. At present there is constructed a highway of several tracks that will cover nearly 300 kilometers, from Beer Sheva in the south up to Rosh Hanikrá and Rosh Piná in the north. One hopes that this highway, which construction is still debated due to his environmental ramifications, should allow to avoid the areas densely inhabited, relieving this way the congestion of the traffic and providing a rapid access to most of the areas of the country.
The railroads of Israel provide passengers' service between Tel Aviv, Haifa and Naharía. More towards the south they produce services of load that serve to the port of Ashdod, the cities of Ashkelón and Beer Sheva, and the minerals deposits to the south of Dimona. In the last years there has increased the employment of trains of load and of passengers. To help to relieve the problems caused by the increasing congestion of freeways, there have been instituted in the area of Tel Aviv and that of rapid Haifa units of service that use the improved existing lines and operate in coordination with the buses lines. Many antiquated cars at present in use are being replaced by modern cars for passengers and with air conditioning, and a modern team is used for the mantención of the routes.
The ancient ports of Yafo, Cesarean section and Acre (Acco) have been replaced by three modern ports of deep waters in Haifa, Ashdod and Eilat, which serve to the international navigation. The Haifa port is at present one of the biggest ports of containers in the Mediterranean, and a passengers' busy terminal; the Ashdod port is used principally for goods; and that of Eilat, in the Red Sea, joins Israel with the south hemisphere and with the Far East. Also, in Ashkelón it produces a petroleum port, and in Hadera modern facilities work for the direct discharge of ships that they provide with coal to the nearby electric power station.
Conscious of that the geographical place of Israel offers to him the potential to transform in a transit country for travelers and goods that cross the region, the Direction of Ports and Railroads has prepared a long-term plan to answer to the future needs for transports. Between other priorities, it recommends to develop a modern railroad system with team of advanced post in every stage of his terrestrial and marine operations, and the establishment of a system network computarizados that controls and supervises all his services.
The international airport Ben-Gurión (approximately 25 minutes of trip from Tel Aviv, and 50 from Jerusalem) is the principal and biggest air terminal of the country. Due to the rapid increase in the number of arrivals and passengers' games, the airport is being extended greatly. Chartered flights, principally from Europe, and cabotage flights make use of the airport of Eilat and of small airfields in the outskirts of Tel Aviv in the center and Rosh Piná in the north.
About 91 % of the israeles lives in urban areas. Many modern cities, which combine the ancient thing with the new thing, have been constructed in places known from the antigedad; between they tell themselves Jerusalem, Safed, Beer Sheva, Tiberades and Acre (Acco). Others, like Rejovot, Hadera, Ptaj Tikv and Rishn Letzin began like establishments agrcolas, in the perodo previous to the state and evolved gradually up to transforming in big centers of population. Cities of development as Carmiel and Kiriat Gat were constructed in the first aos of the state to lodge the intensive growth of the population generated by the massive immigration, to help to disperse the population throughout the country and to promote a rural and urban economy closely related if, taking the industry and the services to areas till then uninhabited.
Jerusalem placed in the mounts of Judea, is the capital of Israel, the head office of the government and the historical, spiritual and national center of the Jewish people since king David turned it in capital of his kingdom approximately 3.000 years ago. Sanctified by the religion and the tradition, by his holy places and his temples, it is revered by Jews, Christians and Muslims of the whole world.
Until 180, Jerusalem was a walled city formed by four quarters: Jewish, Moslem, Armenian and Christian. In that one small the Jews, that by that time constituan most of the population of the city, they began establishing new quarters out of the walls, which formed the nucleus of the modern Jerusalem. During three decades of British administration (1918-48), the city happens gradually of a careless people is a provincial of the Ottoman empire (017-1917) to a flourishing metrpoli with many new residential areas, each of which reflects the character of the particular group who inhabits it. As a consequence of the Arab attack against the newly created State of Israel, the city was divided (1949) under Jordanian domain and Israel and during the following 19 years, walls of concrete and wire fences of country separated a part of the city of other one. As result of the attack in the War of the Six You Give to Jerusalem in 1967, the city was reunified.
Being today in da the biggest city of the country, Jerusalem is provided with a population of about 670.000 inhabitants. Simultaneously ancient and modern, there is a city of diversity which inhabitants represent a miscellany of cultures and nationalities, of forms of life religious observantes and secular. It is a city that preserves his past and constructs towards the future, with places histricos carefully restored, wide green, modern culprits area TV/radio commercials, industrial parks and suburbs in expansion that reaffirm his continuity and vitality.
Tel Aviv - Yafo, is a modern city on the coast of the Mediterrneo; it is the shopping and financial center of the country, grasp like the focus of his cultural life. In his bosom they concentrate the mayora of the industrial organizations, the Stock Exchange of Values, the principal newspapers, shopping centers and publishing houses. Tel Aviv, the first absolutely Jewish city of the modern times, was founded in 1909 like suburb of Jaffa, one of the most ancient urban establishments of the world. In 1934 Tel Aviv received municipal status and in 1950 the city changed of name to Tel Aviv - Yafo, absorbing the new municipality to the ancient Jaffa. The area about the ancient Yafo port has developed convirtindose in an artists' colony and a center turstico that is provided with galleries, restaurants and night clubs.
Haifa, on the coast of the Mediterrneo, spreads along the hillsides of Monte Carmel. It is constructed in three levels topogrficos: the city goes down, partially in grounds recovered from the sea, it is the shopping center with the harbors; the average level is an ancient residential area, and the highest level is formed by new quarters, modern, that are in rapid expansion, with streets shaded by trees, parks and forests of conferas, which descollan on the industrial areas and the beaches of his wide bay. Important port of deep waters, Haifa is a focus of the international trade. Also, it serves like administrative center of the north area of Israel.
Safed located in the top of the mounts of the Galilee, is a popular place of summer holiday and place turstico, with an artists' quarter and several centenary synagogs. In the XVIth century, Safed was the most important center of study and creativity Jews in the world - place of meeting of rabbis, students, and mystics who fixed laws and religious prescripts, many of which keep on being respected by the Jews observantes up to the present.
Tiberades, on the beach of the Lake Kinret, is famous for his teraputicas sources of thermal waters. At present the city is an effervescent center turstico along with the lake, in that the remains arqueolgicos of his past are mixed by modern hotels and buildings. Founded in the 1st century of the EC addressed to the Roman emperor Tiberio, it turned into a Jewish center of studies and for the long time it was the head office of a renowned academy rabnica.
Beer Sheva is in the north of the Neguev, in the intersection of ways that go to the Dead Sea and to Eilat. It is a new town constructed on the remains of an ancient place that goes back to the small one of the patriarchs, approximately 3.500 years ago. The called "Capital of the Nguev", it is an administrative and economic center, head office of the offices of the regional government and institutions of health, education and culture that they serve to the whole south region.
Eilat, the city more to the south of Israel is his exit to the Red Sea and to the Indian Ocean. His modern port constructed on the place in which it is supposed that there was the port used in the times of king Salomon, attends to the commerce of the country with Africa and the Far East. Warm winters, an impactante submarine stage, well equipped beaches, aquatic sports, luxurious hotels and the access from Europe by means of direct chartered flights have turned Eilat into a prosperous spa turstico during the whole year. From the establishment of the peace between Israel and Jordan (1994), joint development projects have begun with the nearby city of Akaba, principally to promote the tourism in the region.
Architecture over the course of time
The style of the different urban construction enormously, from structures of last centuries, inspired by the renowned architects of the Europe previous to the Second World war and blocks of departments constructed to lodge the new immigrants in the first years of the state, up to carefully planned residential areas, skyscraper of concrete and glass that offices lodge, and luxurious hotels constructed in the last two decades.
About 9 per cent of the population live in rural areas, in villages and in two singular cooperative frames, the kibbutz and the moshav, which developed in the country at the beginning of the XXth century.
Villages of diverse sizes are inhabited by Arabs and Druzes, who constitute a 1,2 per cent of the population of Israel. The ground and the houses are of private ownership and the peasants cultivate and sell his products in individual form. A minority inside the Arab sector, the Bedouins (dears in 170.000) at present are spending a process of urban development that reflects the transition of a traditional society to a modern and sedentary way of life.
The kibbutz is an autosufficient social and economic unit in which the decisions are adopted as the General Assembly of his members and the property and the production means are of communal belonging. Nowadays 1,8 per cent of the population lives in 268 kibutzim. The members are employed at the diverse branches of the economy of the kibbutz: Being traditionally the spine of the Israeli agriculture, the kibutzim devote themselves now increasingly to the industry, the tourism and the services.
The moshav is a rural establishment in which every family supports its own farm and hearth. In the past the cooperation was spreading to the buys and the marketing; at present, the farmers of the moshavim have chosen to be more independent economically. Approximately 452 moshavim and moshavim shitufiim with an average of 0 families each one, understand about 3,3 % of the population of the country and supply a big part of the agricultural production of Israel.
The yishuv kehilatí (community establishment) is a new form of rural establishment; in each of 123 existing communities hundreds of families live. Although the economic life of every family is completely independent and most of the members work out of the community, the level of voluntary participation of the members in the community life is very high. The central institution is the General Assembly formed by the chiefs of every family, which establishes and approves the budget of the community in his annual meeting. In addition to the commissions of administration and supervision, some groups of work devote themselves to such areas like education, culture, youth, finance and others. A secretariat to salary handles the daily matters of the community in accordance with the decisions of the elect bodies. The new members are accepted only under approval of the community.
Source: MFA - Foreign Office of Israel
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