Jerusalem, The Holy City
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It has a population of 692.000 hab. and it is to 70 Km to the east of Tel Aviv.
It is spiritually significant both for Jews and for Christians and Muslims. Jerusalem is located symbolically in the heights of a hill, in the mountains of Judea, with sight to the vales of Kidron and of Hinnom. It can be easily divided in two parts: the old city, with his walls and his four quarters, Armenian, Jewish, Christian and Moslem to the east, surrounded by the west, north and south for the modern city in constant expansion. Most of the Arab community resides in the oriental part (almost a third of the inhabitants) and his majority lives in the old city.
As all the cities of the antiquity, Jerusalem had its own water source: the Guijon spring. There are traces of which already in the stone age there were human establishments in the surroundings and later the Canaanitas constructed there a city. Nevertheless, Jerusalem has been constantly tied to the evolution of the Jewish people.
Abraham came to the place in his peregrinajes and King David, after conquering the hand city of the Jebuseos, constructed in his place a walled city. David's called City, to the south of the current old city, transformed in a political and religious center of the nation.
Here Salomón constructed his famous temple, in the VIIIth century ADC and after his death, when the nation was divided in two, Jerusalem turned in the capital of the kingdom of the South.
The magnificent Temple was destroyed by Nabocodonosor in him 587 ADC and it replaced by the new one in 520 ADC. Jerusalem was governed by Greeks, and Romans. During the Herodes reign, a new wall was constructed as well as palaces, theaters, the citadel and a racetrack.
The Big Riot of the Jews against Rome culminated with the finished destruction of Jerusalem in Tito's hands in 70 DC. Once again, the Temple, except for the Western Wall, was destroyed.
In the IVth century, when Constantino unified the low Roman Empire the Christian religion, tens churches were constructed in Jerusalem. During the Moslem period, there was constructed the Mosque of The Aksa, the dome of the Rock. The Crossed ones erected hospices and churches in the city. The Jews, that from the VIIth century DC did not have access to the city, began to return to her in the XIIIth century DC. In fact, DC had been already expelled in the IInd century after the defeat of the riot of Bar Kojba and the real exile had begun in the year 70, with the Temple destruction.
After the pursuits increased in Europe in the silo XVI, many Jews came to Jerusalem and several synagogs were constructed. In 1947 the United Nations glided to transform Jerusalem in an international city. On having declared itself the Independence of the State of Israel in 1948, the Jews and Arabs fought for her and finally it was divided in 1949. In 1950 western Jerusalem was declared the capital of Israel. The oriental part was annexed in 1967 and 1980 both parts, unified, there are the capital of the State.
The old city
Cave of Zidkiahu: Close to the door of Damascus. Supposedly used by king Zidkiahu to escape of the Babylonian ones. From his interior there were extracted the stones with which the Temple of Salomón was constructed.
Church of the Holy Tomb: One of the most sacred places for the Christendom, it points out the place of the crucifixion, burial and Jesus's resurrection. Placed in the hill known as Gólgota (Calvary in Latin), the current church presents several modifications and additions to the original Crossed structure.
David's tower and Citadel: It is to the right of the Iafo door, in the place where Herodes constructed towers on more ancient remains. Destroyed by Adriano and reconstructed by Beibars in the XIVth century, which added the minaret known today like David's Tower. Inside the citadel there is the municipal Museum, which is provided with audio-visual programs transmitted on multiple screens, on Hebrew, English, French and German.
Omar's mosque: (Dome of the Rock) The third sacred site in importance for the Islam. Constructed in 91 DC for the Caliph Abdul Malik Ibn Marwan, of the dynasty Omaya. Erected on the mount Moriá, it gets his name for the big sacred rock that exists in his interior, from which, according to the tradition, Mahoma amounted to the paradise and on which, according to the Judaism, Abraham must have sacrificed his son Isaac. It is considered to be also one of the stones belonging to the bases of the Temple.
Mosque of The Aksa: The biggest of the mosques of the city. Constructed by the caliph Abdul Malik, of the Omayas and reconstructed by the caliph Ad-Dahir, of the Fatímidas, it points out the extreme point of the peregrinaje of Mahoma from the Mecca.
Church of Santa Ann: Close to the Door of the Lions, one of the best preserved buildings of the crossed period. Adjacent to the Beit jisda pond, is considered to be to be the house of the parents of Maria, Santa Ann and San Joaquín and the place in which Jesus treated the paralytic one (Saint John 5:2-16)
Painful route: It begins close to Antonia's Tower and close to the Door of the Lions and across 14 stations that mark episodes of Jesus's way towards the Calvary, finishes in the church of the Holy Tomb, where the last 5 stations are. In the way there is the Arch Ecce homo, constructed by Adriano and associate with this Route (Saint John 19:5). Pilgrims can join the procession of the Franciscan Parents every Friday at 3 p.m. hs., beginning from Antonia's Tower.
Western wall (of the lamentations): The most sacred place for the Judaism and fundamental goal of peregrinaje during the exile. Considered like the remaining only one of the second Temple, it is in fact the western wall of containment of the platform on which the temple was constructed. Sermons to God and individual requests are placed every day between the stones of the wall - for the "God's eyes only". The place is visited especially every Saturday and traded and 9 of Av, anniversary of the destruction of the first and second Temple.
Iojanán Ben Zakkay: One of four synagogs Sefardíes constructed in the same complex - others are that of Istanbul, that of Eliahu Ha Navi and the Intermediate one, all of them restored after 1967. (In the Jewish Quarter).
The Thistle: It was the main street in any Roman city. It was used for parades and religious processions. This street belonged to "Aelia Capitolina", the Roman city constructed after the destruction of the Second Temple (Ist Century DC). The structures correspond to to Byzantine epoch, Vth century DC. It was possessing 22 meters wide, with side galleries and roofed paths, leaving in the center place for the step of carriages and horses. At present, this street is restored and includes archaeological exhibitions and a shopping center.
The Jewish Quarter: After the reunification of the city in 1967, numerous synagogs, ieshivot and other centers that bloomed during centuries previous to 1948, are being rehabilitated again. This includes the area of the "Wall of the Lamentations" and the "Jewish Quarter" that is in process of reconstruction and repopulation.
Surroundings of the old city
Town of Betania (The Azaria): placed to the east of Monte de los Olivos, place to which Jesus moved back with his disciples when it was betrayed. The name derives from the Hebrew word "gat shmanim", that press means for oil, since there were many of them. The churches of Maria Magdalen, Dominus Flevit and of All the Nations (Basilica of the Agony) they are located in his outskirts and also the Grave of the Virgin.
The Garden of the Grave: at little distance of the route Nablus. According to the beliefs of some Protestants, the grave excavated in the rock marks the place where Jesus was buried.
Monte de los Olivos: to the east of the Old City, considered for centuries one local more sacred, test of it is the desire of every Jew to be buried there. The tradition points out that the Messiah will begin with the resurrection of the dead persons from this point. Many headstones destroyed by the Jordanians, have begun to be restored. For the Christians, this is the place of Jesus's ascension.
T Al The southeast of the Old City, there is said 700 ADC has been excavated by King Jizkiahú in the year, to join the spring of Guijon, placed in the exterior of the walls, with the Shiloaj pond, in his interior. The water of the pond his uses at present to water the Silwan fields, the next Arab town.
The Graves of the Vale of Kidrón: including the famous monument to Absalón, who was constructed supposedly by King David for his rebellious son, although in fact ADC is sculpted in style helenístico of the first century. The Graves of Bnei Jazir, belonging to the priestly family of Jazir, of the epoch of the First Temple. The grave of Zacarías, the prophet, which monument carved in the rock dates probably of the first century ADC.
Town of Ein Karem, considered place of birth of Saint John Bautista and place of the meeting between Maria, Elizabet and Zacarías before Jesus's birth. The churches of the area contain numerous paintings and archaeological remains, and have inspired the creation of an artists' colony in the town.
Medical center Hadasa, belonging to the Hebrew University: it is a modern hospital and a center of education located in the outskirts of Ein Karem and with sight to the town. Constructed by the World Organization of Zionist Women Hadasa. The synagog of the hospital lodges the Windows of Chagall and his famous persons vitrales. There are special programs for visitors on the Hadasa history.
Har (mount) Herzl and Military Cemetery: in Bait Vagan. Place of the grave of Teodoro Herzl, who foresaw the raising of the State of Israel, and of a museum that contains documents on his life. The adjacent cemetery lodges the graves of those that fell down for the defense of Israel and it is opened every day up to the sunset.
Hebrew university in guivat Ram: in the area there are also the buildings of the university library Nacional, the Auditorium Wise, the Synagog, the Planetarium Williams.
Kneset: Building of the Israeli Parliament, in the street Rupin, opened to the public during the meetings period. Walks guided by the building, free of charge. Very close to there - the Park Wohl of Roses of Jerusalem, with his fifteen acres planted with a big variety of roses of the whole world.
Mock-up of ancient Jerusalem in the days of the Second Temple: Placed in the areas of the Hotel Holyland, in the quarter of Bait Vagan.
Iad Vashem: National monument in remembrance of the 6.000.000 of Jews exterminated in the Europe occupied by the Nazi. Exhibition fixes, files and a Flame Votiva in the Room of Remembrance (there exists the possibility of arranging a religious ceremony, previous agreement). The Avenue of the Kind Just persons, a tribute to those that saved Jews lives during the holocaust, drives to the complex.
Eight Doors of the Old City
The Door of Iafo, it is the most suitable access point for those who come from the new town. Traveled towards the right, it goes over at the edge of Zión, on the mount Zión and in the outskirts of David's grave. The Door of the Garbage, across which the same ones were thrown out of the city, is the nearest to the Western Wall. The golden Door (or Door of the Compassion) was blocked centuries behind and according to the Jewish tradition it will be opened in the "End of the Days". According to the Christian religion, this is the door across which Jesus traveled the Palm Sunday.
The Door of the Lions (or Door of San Esteban) was constructed by the Sultan Suleimán, who received in sleep the order to construct one it walls to about the city and the warning that if it was not doing it, it would be devoured by the lions, from here that has ordered to sculpt the lions that decorate the entry. The Door of Herodes, it receives such a name in honor to the king who constructed more buildings in the city. The Door of Damascus (Shjem) indicates the beginning of the route that takes Shjem (Nablus), drives to the Oriental Market. The New Door was opened in 1889 to facilitate the access to the Quarter Cristiano de la Ciudad Vieja.
I walk on the walls of the Old City: The stretch understood between the doors of Iafo and of Damascus allows to visit the remains of the ancient Roman Door that lie under the current Door of Damascus. The stretch understood between the doors of Zión and of the Garbage (entry across the Door of Zión only) includes the possibility of a visit guided to the excavations of the Gardens of Ofel, in the outskirts of the Door of the Garbage.
The new town - I Center
House of the Artists and School of Art Bezalel in the street Shmuel Hanaguid 10-12: The school founded by Boris Shatz 0 years ago, has trained many of the Israeli artists. It offers to the visitor regular exhibitions and has restaurant.
Aijal Shlomó, in the street Hamelej George 58: It is head office of the rabinato transfers it. In his facilities the Jewish Art museum works and of accessories for the religious ceremony. Adjacent, the piece of news is and he praises Big Synagog of Jerusalem, used principally in Saturdays, festivities and special occasions.
Jewish agency, in the street Hamelej George: It lodges the Central Offices of the world Zionist Organization, the Zionist Files, the Jewish National foundation (KKL) and Keren Haiesod (UJA). The golden Books of the Donors are in exhibition.
Majané Iehuda: oriental market of foodstuff and other goods, not far from the street Iafo, extremely congested, particularly on Wednesdays and Thursday.
Cemetery and pond of Nipple: not far from the street Agrón. In his area a grave was mameluca. It is considered that the pond is the mentioned one in the Bible as "the top sink".
It pisses on Shearim: this quarter constructed in the decade of 1870 and populated only by orthodox Jews, is a shopping center for the acquisition of religious products, books and works of religious scribes. It is asked the visitors to dress modestly and not photograph conspicuamente.
Migrash there is - rusim: not far from the street Iafo, constructed in the XIXth century for pilgrims of Russia. In addition to to Russian Orthodox Cathedral, the place lodges also the Spanish Parliament of Justice of Israel and the station of Police officer of Jerusalem. Also the room of the Heroism is in the area, in his origin the Central Prison of Jerusalem, and at present the museum of the Jewish resistance in the epoch of the British Order.
Beit Agnon, in the street Klauzner 16, Talpiot quarter. The S.I house. Agnon, writer who deserved the Nobel Prize of Literature. In exhibition: his study, his extensive library, paintings, his books and a reproduction of the certificate of the Nobel Prize.
The quality House of Jerusalem: in the street Jevron 12. It is a center of production, exhibition and commercialization of local, carrying artistic products of the quality Stamp.
I center Seed drill: In his origin it was a refuge species for the travelers who had stayed out of the city after the large doors had closed to the fall of the sun. At present it is a theater and entertainments place.
International center of Culture for the Youth, in the street Emek refaim 12. It offers different programs for Israeli and foreign young people.
Jutzot Haiotzer: opposite to David's Tower, it serves as center of commercialization of works of art and of handmade products.
Garden of the Bell of the Freedom, In the street David Hamelej, opposite to the montefiore Mill. The garden is dedicated to the bicentenary of the independence of the United States and has a reply of the Bell of the Freedom of Philadelphia, a small amphitheater, areas for sport and recreation. In the summer there are cultural activities outdoors.
Mishkenot haroim (the shops of the shepherds): reconstruction of a Bedouin camp, in the quarter of (oriental) Talpiot mizraj, with an exceptional visit. In the place there is coffee, restaurant, kiosk of memories and programs with Bedouin ambience.
Ramat Rajel: kibbutz in the extreme Southeast of Jerusalem. For his strategic place it was a key point in the War of the Independence. From the hill in which it is located there is an exceptional sight of Jerusalem and of Beit Lejem (Bethlehem).
Iemin Moshé: The First residential area constructed out of the walls of the Old City, in the decade of 1880. The mill that Sir Moisés Montefiore constructed for the use of the first inhabitants, is a museum in his honor. To his feet, Brejat hasultan (pond of the sultan), I besiege especially adapted for performances outdoors and special events.
YMCA (Young Man Christian Association), located in the street David Hamelej, has facilities for cultural and sports activities and accommodation.
Monte Zion (Har Zion)
Chamber of the Martyrs: it is a museum in memory of the victims of the Nazism that is located next to the Grave of King David, place of peregrinaje, especially in Shavuot (holiday of the harvests), date indicated by the tradition of the death of King David. In the halla place also the Cenacle (quarter where the Last Dinner took place) and the Abbey of Dormición, with the crypt where Maria lies "plunged in the eternal sleep".
San Pedro de Galicantu: on the oriental top of the mount, it is the place where supposedly Caifas resided and in Pedro he renounced Jesus at the time of the singing of the rooster (in Latin gallicantu it means the singing of the rooster).
Monument of Allenby, Kikar (square) Illit, Romema, commemorates the entry of the British army to Jerusalem commanded by Allenby, in 1917.
Biblical zoological garden: Not far from the street Irmiahu, it possesses a collection of animals, birds and reptiles mentioned in the Bible.
Guivat Hatajmoshet. (Hill of the Ammunitions), park and museum in memory of the fallens during the assault to the Jordanian command located in the hill during the War of Six Days.
Monte Scopus: in Hebrew Har Hatzofim - mount of the watchtowers, place of an ancient lookout. There the Hospital Hadasa is placed and the campus of the Hebrew, founded University give 1925. The area stayed under Israeli jurisdiction during the year 1948 and 1967. From 1967 both institutions have been renewed.
Sanhedria: graves of the members of the Supreme Court of Rabbinical of Israel during the days of the Second Temple.
Graves of the Kings: in the street Shjem (Route of Nablus), excavated in the rock and decorated with symbols of plenty. Place of grave of Reina Helena of Adiabena and his family and, according to the Jewish tradition, also of the father-in-law of Ravi Akiba, Calba Savúa.
Grave of Simón Just person, located in Sheij Jarrah and visited especially in the festivity of Lag Bahomer, is supposedly the grave of a Supreme Priest of the epoch of the Second Temple.
Museum of Agriculture: in the street Helleni Hamalká 13, an outdoor exposure of ancient agricultural hardware. Open sea in summer from Sunday until Friday, from 8 to 13 hs. And in winter from Sunday until Thursday from 8 to 14 hs., and on Friday from 8 to 13 hs.
Municipal museum: to see Old City, David's Tower and Citadel.
Guivat Hatajmoshet: to see New town - North
Museum of the Islam: in Har Hamoriá (Monte del Templo). Brought in pay.
Museum Israel: in the street Rupin. It includes the Biblical museum and Archaeological Bronfman, the National museum of Art Betzalel, the Garden of Art Billy Rose and the Sanctum of the Book, which contains the Rolls of the Dead Sea. Also, It Is provided with numerous rotary exhibitions.
Jewish art museum: street Sorotzkin, opened from Sunday until Thursday, from 13 to 17 hs.
Institute Mayer of Islamic art: in the street Hapalmaj 2. Open sea from Sunday until Thursday, of 10 to 0:30 and of 0:30 to 18 hs. Brought in pay.
Natural history museum: in the street Mohalíver. The models in the exhibition offer an idea of the animal and vegetable life in the area. Enclosure during August. Entry pays except on Saturday.
Courtyard of the Old man Ishuv (population): in the street Or Hajaim, in the Jewish quarter of the Old City. There is an ancient restored house of the Old City, With a courtyard or square belonging to the communities Ashkenazi and Sefardí, in use from half of the sigo XIX and until 1948. Open sea from Sunday until Thursday, from 9 to 16 hs. Brought in pay.
Museum Rockefeller: in the street Suleimán. Exhibitions on several of the most significant archaeological digs. Opened every day from 10 to 17 hs., on Friday and Saturday, from 10 to 14 hs. Brought in pay.
Museum of Tax: it exhibits documents related to the tax one in Israel and in the Diaspora. Brought in pay.
Source: Jai Uruguay