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Independence of Israel



The State of Israel

Independence


On May 14, 1948, Israel proclaimed his independence. Less than 24 hours later, the regular armies of Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq invaded it, forcing Israel to defend the sovereignty that it had reconquered in his ancestral homeland.

In what it happened to be known like the War of the Independence of Israel, recently formed and poorly equipped Forces of Defense of Israel (FDI) pushed the invaders back in bloody and intermittent combats that extended for approximately 0 months, which demanded more than 6.000 lives (approximately one per cent of the whole of the Jewish population of the country in this moment).

During the first months of 1949, direct negotiations were supported, under the patronage of the UNO, between Israel and each of the invading countries (except Iraq, which he has refused to negotiate with Israel up to the date); the result was agreements of armistice that reflected the situation at the end of the combats. The coastal plain, the Galilee and the whole Néguev, they stayed under the sovereignty of Israel, Judea and Samaria (the Western Margin) went on to Jordanian domain, the Stripe of Gaza under Egyptian administration, and the city of Jerusalem was divided, controlling Jordan the oriental part, included the Old City, and Israel the western sector.

The construction of the State

As soon as the war was finished, Israel centred on the construction of the state for which it had fought so much and so hardly. The first Knéset (parliament) of 120 bankings started to sesionar after the national elections (January 25, 1949) in those that it informed close to 85 per cent of the persons with right to vote. Two of the persons who led Israel towards the crystallization of the state happened to be the leaders of the country: David Ben-Gurión, president of the Jewish Agency, was elected a prime minister, and Jaim Weizmann, president of the World Zionist Organization, was the first elect president of the country. On May 11, 1949, Israel member of the United Nations occupied his place as 590.

In accordance with the concept of "crucible of the diasporas" that is the meaning of life of Israel, the doors of the country were opened wide open affirming the right of every Jew to come to Israel and, after his arrival, to acquire the citizenship. In the first four months of independence about 50.000 immigrants, mostly survivors of the Holocaust, reached the coasts of Israel. Towards ends of 1951, 687.000 men, women and children had come, their more than Arab country of refugee 300.000, doubling this way the Jewish population.

The economic tension caused by the War of Independence and the need to support a population in rapid growth needed of the internal austerity and of the financial aid of the exterior. The assistance granted by the government of the United States, loans of North American banks, contributions of the Jews of the diaspora and the German repairs after the war were used in the housing construction, mechanization of the agriculture, establishment of a merchant marina and an air line, development of the existing minerals, development of the industry and enlargement of the road networks, of the telecommunications and the electricity.

Towards ends of the first decade of the existence of the state the industrial production had doubled, as the number of used persons, and the industrial exports had been quadrupled. The vast expansion of the agriculture had brought self-sufficiency in the supplying of all the basic foodstuff except meat and grains, and approximately 20.000 hectares of ground, mostly arid, they were reforestadas and trees stood firm along almost 800 km of highways.

The educational system, which had been developed by the Jewish community in the prestate period and was including now to the Arab sector, was extended greatly. The education happened to be free and obligatory for all the children between 5 and 14 years of age (from 1978 it has been obligatory up to 16 years and free up to the 18). The cultural and artistic activity bloomed, combining elements of the Middle East, Noráfrica and Occident, as the Jews who were coming from all parts of the world were bringing with it the particular traditions of his communities, as well as aspects of the prevailing culture in the countries in which they had lived during generations. When Israel celebrated his tenth anniversary, the population of the country was exceeding two million souls.

The years of construction of the state turned out to be muddied by serious problems of safety. The agreements of armistice of 1949 not only failed in the attempt of paving the way towards a permanent peace, but they were constantly violated. In contradiction to the resolution of the Security Council of the UNO of September 10, 1951, there was blocked the way of ships and of Israeli navigation along the Suez Canal; there worsened the blockade of the Straits of Tirán; the incursions of bands of terrorists to Israel from the nearby Arab countries to commit murders and sabotage were carried out by increasing frequency; and the peninsula of the Sinai was turned gradually into an enormous Egyptian military base. 

After the signature of a tripartite military alliance between Egypt, Syria and Jordan (October, 1956), the imminent threat to the existence of Israel was intensified. During a campaign of eight days the Forces of Defense of Israel took the Stripe of Gaza and the whole peninsula of the Sinai, stopping to 16 km to the east of the Suez Canal. The decision of the United Nations to bet an emergency Force of the UNO (UNEF) along the border between Israel and Egypt, and the granting of Egyptian safeties with regard to the free navigation in the Gulf of Eilat, they led to Israel to accepting a retreat for stages (November, 1956 to March, 1957) of the conquered areas some weeks earlier. Consistently, the Straits of Tirán were opened, allowing to the country to develop his commerce with the countries of Asia and East Africa, as well as import oil of the Persian Gulf.

During the second decade of life of the country (1958-68) the exports doubled and the PNB increased in 10 per cent annual. Although some products previously imported, role, tires, radioes and fridges now were manufactured in the country, the most rapid growth took place in recently created industries of metals, machinery, chemists and electronics. Since the internal market for the food cultivated in the country was reaching quickly the saturation point, the agricultural sector began planting a big cultivation variety for the food processing industry, as well as for the exportation of fresh products. The second port of deep waters was constructed in Ashdod, on the Mediterranean, additional coast the existing one in Haifa, to deal with the big commerce volume. 

In Jerusalem, the permanent head office of the Knéset was constructed and the facilities were erected for the Medical center Hadassah and the Hebrew University in new places that were replacing the head offices that both institutions had in the Mount Scopus and that must be left after the War of the Independence. The Museum was established Israel with the target to assemble, to preserve, to study and to exhibit the artistic and cultural treasures of the Jewish people.

The foreign relations extended constantly, becoming closer the bonds with the United States, the countries of the British Community of Nations, most of the states of Western Europe, practically all the countries of Latin America and Africa and some of Asia. Extensive cooperation programs were initiated, in that hundreds of doctors, teachers, engineers, agronomists, expert in irrigation and Israeli juvenile organizers shared his knowledge and experience with the people of other developing countries. In 1965, Israel exchanged ambassadors with the Federal Republic of Germany, a step that had been delayed due to the bitter memories that Nazi (1933-45) was supporting the Jewish village of the crimes committed against him during the diet. The standardization of the relations between both countries was preceded by a vehement opposition and a public debate.

The Eichmann judgment: 
In May, 190, Adolf Eichmann, one of the principal organizers of the extermination program Nazi during the Second World war, was brought to Israel to be submitted to judgment under the Law of Punishment to Nazi and Collaborators with the Nazi (1950). In the judgment (April, 1961), Eichmann was found guilty of having committed crimes against the humanity and against the Jewish people. It was sentenced to death. The Supreme Court pushed his appeal back and it was hung on May 30, 1962. This has been the only occasion in which a death penalty has been fulfilled under the Israeli law.

The War of Six Days, 1967

The hopes to reach another decade of relative calmness happened to be more and more remote with the climb of the incursions of Arab terrorists across the borders of Egypt and of Jordan, the persistent bombings of the Syrian artillery against agricultural establishments in the north of the Galilee, and the massive military equipment of the nearby Arab countries. When Egypt again moved big troops quantities to the desert of the Sinai (May, 1967), it ordered to the forces of peace of the UNO (opened from 1957) to move back from the area, re-imposed the blockade to the Straits of Tirán and established a military alliance with Jordan, Israel was before hostile Arab armies in all the fronts. Since Egypt had violated the arrangements agreed after the Campaign of the Sinai (1956), Israel appealed to his inherent self-defense right throwing (June 5, 1967) a preventive attack against Egypt in the south continued by a counterattack to Jordan in the East and the expulsion of the intrenched Syrian forces in the Heights of the Golán in the north.

At the end of six days of combat, the previous lines of cessation of fire were replaced by other piece of news, staying under Israeli control Judea, Samaria, Gaza, the peninsula of the Sinai and the Heights of the Golán. Consistently, the towns of the north of the country were liberated after 19 years of constant Syrian bombing; he insured himself the step of Israeli crafts along the Suez Canal and the Straits of Tirán, and Jerusalem, which had remained divided between Israel and Jordan from 1949, was reunified under Israeli authority.

Of war in war

After the war, the diplomatic challenge of Israel was how to translate his military profit in a permanent peace, based on the resolution 242 of the Security Council that was calling, between other things, to the "recognition of the sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of each of the states of the area and to his right to live in peace inside sure and recognized borders, free of threats or acts of force". The Arab position, nevertheless, as it was formulated in the conference summit of Khartoum (August, 1967) called to "not peace with Israel, not negotiations with Israel and not recognition of Israel." In September, 1968, Egypt initiated a "war of wear", with sporadic static actions along the margins of the Suez Canal, which gradually it increased up to becoming a limited entire war, which caused serious losses to both parts. The hostilidades concluded in the summer 1970, when Egypt and Israel accepted the reestablishment of the cessation of fire along the Suez Canal.

The war of Yom Kipur, 1973

Three years of relative calmness on the borders were destroyed in Yom Kipur (Day of the Atonement), the most sacred day of the Jewish year, when Egypt and Syria threw a surprising attack coordinated against Israel (October 6, 1973), crossing the Egyptian army the Suez Canal, and penetrating the Syrian troops in the Heights of the Golán. During the following three weeks, the Forces of Defense of Israel invested the sense of the combats and repelled the attackers, crossed the Suez Canal towards Egyptian territory and advanced up to 32 km from the Syrian capital, Damascus. Two years of difficult negotiations between Israel and Egypt and between Israel and Syria, they achieved agreements of separation of forces, according to which Israel moved back from parts of the territories captured during the war.

Operation Peace for the Galilee, 1982

The international frontier limit with Lebanon, was never discussed by any of the parts. Nevertheless, when the Organization for the Liberation of Palestine (PLO) re-opened in the south of the Lebanon after having being expelled from Jordan (1970) and perpetrated repeated terrorist acts against the towns and villages of the north of Israel (Galilee), causing numerous victims and a lot of material damages, the Forces of Defense of Israel crossed the border (1982). The "Operation Peace for the Galilee" achieved the retreat of the whole massive organizational and military infrastructure of the PLO of the area. During the following 18 years, Israel supported a small safety area in the south of this country, adjacent to his north border, to protect the population of the Galilee of possible attacks on the part of hostile elements.

Terrorism

The Arab and Palestinian terrorism against Israel already existed decades before the establishment of the State of Israel and it has continued since then. Thousands of terrorist attacks took multiple Israeli victims as a result during two decades previous to the War of Six Days. The establishment of the PLO in 1964 placed it at the head of the terrorist action.

During the decades of 1970 and 1980, the diverse organizations that form the PLO threw numerous attacks inside Israel and in the exterior. One of the most notable was the murder of the Israeli sportsmen in the Olympiad of Munich in 1972.

In spite of the commitment assumed by the Palestinians in 1993 to resign from the terror providing this way the base for the peace process Palestinian - Israeli, the attacks continued and they were still intensified seriously from September, 2000, causing the death of hundreds of Israelis and leaving thousands of injured men.

From the war to the peace

The elections to the Knéset of 1977 led to the power to the block of the Likud, (a coalition of parties of right and of center), putting term to almost 30 years of government of the Labour Party. The new prime minister, Menajem Beguin, repeated the commitment of all the first previous ministers to fight for a permanent peace in the region and called the Arab leaders to sit down in the negotiations table.

The cycle of Arab rejections to the called peace Israelis was broken by the visit of the president of Egypt Anwar Sadat to Jerusalem (November, 1977), continued by negotiations between Israel and Egypt under the auspices of the United States. The Agreements of Camp David (September, 1978), they were containing a frame for a peace comprehensiva in the Middle East, including a detailed proposal for the self-government of the Palestinians.

On March 26, 1979, Israel and Egypt signed a peace agreement in Washington A.D. that was putting term to 30 years of belligerency. In accordance with the terms of the agreement, Israel moved back from the Peninsula of the Sinai, replacing the previous lines of cessation of fire and the armistice agreements by mutually recognized international borders.

Three years of conversations between Jordan and Israel, as a result of the Conference of Peace of Madrid of 1991, concluded with a joint declaration of king Hussein and the prime minister Itzjak Rabín (July, 1994) that was finishing 46 years after belligerency between both countries. The peace agreement Jordanian - Israeli was signed in the frontier position Aravá (close to Eilat in Israel and Akaba in Jordan) on October 26, 1994, in the presence of the president of the United States, Bill Clinton.

During the 80s and of 90, Israel absorbed more than one million new immigrants, principally of the ex-Soviet Union, of Eastern Europe and of Ethiopia. The inflow of so many new consumers, as well as the big quantity of qualified and not qualified personnel, they impelled the economy towards a period of intensive expansion.

The government that rose to power after the elections to the Knéset of 1984 was formed by the two biggest political blocks - Labour Movement (left / center) and Likud (right / center). It was replaced in 1988 by a coalition directed by the Likud that, at the end of his period of four years was continued in 1992 by a coalition of the Labour Movement and other smaller parties of center left. 

After the murder of the prime minister Itzjak Rabín in 1995, it was called to new elections in 1996. These were direct elections for the prime minister charge, rising to power Biniamín Netaniahu, and it formed a coalition headed by the Likud.

Less than three years later, his government fell down. In 1999, Ehud Barak, leader of the party An Israel (left / center), was an elect prime minister and he formed a coalition government; he resigned in December, 2000. In February, 2001 Ariel Sharón, president of the Likud, was an elect prime minister and he formed a government of national unit that it included to most of the political parties.

Every government strained for achieving the peace, the economic development and the absorption of the immigrants, in accordance with its own political convictions.

The peace process

From the signature of the israelo-Egyptian agreement of peace (1979) diverse initiatives were raised on the part of Israel and other countries to promote the peace process in the Middle East. These efforts drove possibly to the fact that there was summoned the Conference of Peace of Madrid (October, 1991) carried out under American and Soviet auspices, which it assembled to representatives of Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and the Palestinians. The formal opening was continued by bilateral negotiations between the parts and multilateral conversations about the topics of regional interest.

Bilateral conversations

Israel and the Palestinians: After months of intense contacts after the drop cloths, in Oslo, between negotiators of Israel and the Organization for the Liberation of Palestine (PLO), a Declaration of Beginning (DDP) was formulated delineating self-government dispositions for the Palestinians in the Western Margin and the Stripe of Gaza. His signature, on September 13, 1993, was preceded by a notes exchange between the president of the PLO Yasser Arafat and the prime minister Itzjak Rabín, in which the PLO was resigning from the use of the terror, it was promising to annul those articles in the Letter Palestine that they were denying the right of Israel to the existence, and was committing itself to a pacific solution of the conflict of decades between Palestinians and Jews for the Earth. In answer, Israel recognized the PLO like the representative of the Palestinian people.

The DDP there contains a series of general beginning mutually agreed with regard to a period five-year-old stand-in of Palestinian self-government and a frame for the diverse stages of the israelo-Palestinian negotiations. The dispositions for a Palestinian self-government in the Stripe of Gaza and the area of Jericho, were implemented in May, 1994; the transference of powers and of responsibilities in the Western Margin in the education and culture spheres, health, social welfare, direct taxes and tourism was implemented three months later. The DDP and other agreements signed by Israel and the Palestinians culminated with the signature of the Temporary Agreement Israelo-Palestino of September, 1995.

This agreement included an enlargement of the Palestinian self-government by means of an elect authority of self-government, the Palestinian Advice (elect in January, 1996) and continued with the new deployment of the FDI in the Western Margin. The Agreement also established the mechanism of the israelo-Palestinian relations that they will have to lead to an Agreement on the Final Status. Under the Temporary Agreement the Western Margin was divided in three types of areas:

Judea and Samaria with the Areas A& B of the Authority Palestine
Letter, Jerusalem
Area To - comprises the principal cities of the Western Margin: entire responsibility of the Palestinian Advice for the internal safety and the public order, as well as the responsibility for the civil matters. (The city of Hebrón was an object of special dispositions established in the Temporary Agreement; the protocol regarding the new deployment in Hebrón was signed in January, 1997).

Area B - comprises small peoples and villages in the Western Margin: responsibility of the Palestinian Advice for the civil matters (as in the Area A) and the mantención of the public order, while Israel supports the principal responsibility for the safety to protect his citizens and to fight the terrorism.

Area C - comprises all the Jewish establishments, to a great extent depopulated areas of strategic importance for Israel and areas of the Western Margin: entire Israeli responsibility for the safety and the public order, as well as legal liabilities related to the territory (planning, archaeology, etc.). The Palestinian Advice assumes the responsibility as for all other civil spheres of the Palestinian population.

The timetable for the implementation of additional phases of the new deployment, as it is specified in the Temporary Agreement, was checked in several occasions on both parts, especially in the Memorandum of Rio Wye of October, 1998. After this fixed reviews, Israel completed the first and second stage of the process of New Additional Deployment (NDA) in March, 2000. The third and last NDA is still in the stage of the negotiations. As result of the new deployments, more than 18 % of the Western Margin is designated nowadays like Area To and more than 21 % like Area B, remaining 98 % of the Palestinian population of the Western Margin under Palestinian authority.

The negotiations between the parts on the Final Status, to determine the nature of the permanent agreement between Israel and the entity Palestine, began, as it was programmed, in May, 1996. Suicidal attacks perpetrated by terrorists of in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv during 1996 never steamed up the Israeli position on the peace process. There was a hiatus of three years and the conversations about the Final Status resumed newly after the Memorandum of Sharem the-Sheikh (September, 1999). The matters to be treated refugees include, establishments, safety matters, borders, Jerusalem, and others. At the invitation of the president Clinton, the Israeli prime minister Barak and the leader of the Authority Palestine Arafat they informed in a meeting summit in Camp David in July, 2000 to resume the negotiations. The summit concluded without an agreement being reached. Nevertheless, a three-sided declaration was published defining the agreed beginning that will have to guide the future negotiations.

In September, 2000, the Palestinians initiated a campaign of terror and indiscriminate violence, causing you would be low and a suffering to both parts. 

The numerous efforts to finish the violent confrontation and to resume the peace process have failed due to the continuous and increasing Palestinian terror supported by the Authority Palestine. Israel accepted the conception raised by the president of the USA. Bush, in his speech of June 24, 2002, as for which the term of the Palestinian terrorism would be continued by a final arrangement of all the points and with it, the peace.

Israel and Syria: Under the frame of the formula of Madrid, conversations began in Washington between Israeli and Syrian delegations, and every so much these are carried out at ambassadors' level, with the participation of tall American officials. 

Two wheels of israelo-Syrian conversations of peace (December, 1995, January, 1996) centred on the safety matters and other topics fix. Very detailed and comprehensivas in his scope, the conversations identified important areas of conceptual agreement on his future discussion and consideration. The negotiations between Israel and Syria were resumed in January, 2000 in Shepherdstown, the USA, after a stagnation of more than three years. Nevertheless, the above mentioned conversations did not achieve a progress, not even the meeting between the president Clinton and the president Assad in Geneva (March, 2000) drove to a renewal of the conversations At present there are no negotiations.

Israel and Lebanon: On May 23, 2000 Israel completed the retreat of all his military forces of the safety Area in the South of the Lebanon, in accordance with the decision of the government of Israel to implement the resolution 425 of the Security Council of the UNO. The Lebanon, regrettably, must still fulfill in its entirety the Resolution 425 of the Security Council of the UNO.

Multilateral conversations

The multilateral conversations were instituted like integral part of the process of peace, destined to find solutions to regional problems fix, and to serve like a measurement to create confidence and to promote the development of the normal relations between the nations of the Middle East. After the Multilateral Conference of the Middle East in Moscow (January, 1992) with the participation of 36 countries and international organizations, the delegations split into five groups of work that treat on specific areas of regional worry (environment, weapon control and regional safety, refugees, water resources and economic development) that they meet every so much in diverse places of the region.

The Committee of Initiatives, formed by representatives of the delegations keys and presided by the USA and Russia, coordinates the multilateral conversations. His most recent meeting had took place in Moscow between January 31 and February 10.

From the explosion of the Palestinian violence (September, 2000), most of the activities in the multilateral plane have stagnated.


Source: MFA - Foreign Office of Israel








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