The Jewish immigration to Israel
|The State of Israel will remain opened for the Jewish immigration and the crucible of the diasporas; he will promote the development of the country for the benefit of all his inhabitants; it will be based on the beginning of freedom, justice and peace, in view of the educations of the prophets of Israel.|
Aliá - the meeting of the exiles - is a fundamental aspiration of the Zionism and of the State of Israel. The Law of the comeback (1950) that grants to every Jew the right to come to Israel like immigrant and to turn into citizen, was decreed to give a concrete expression to this cause. From the establishment of the State, there have come more than two million and a half immigrants; his experience and talent have contributed immensely to the economic, scientific, academic and cultural life of the country.
Why do they come?
The reasons for which the Jews immigrate to Israel lie deeply in the base of the history, the faith and the psyche of the Jewish people. In accordance with the Hebrew Writing, God delivered the Earth of Israel to Abraham and to his progeny forever. The Jewish belief, therefore, considers the Earth to be a part of the religious / national legacy of the Jewish people and attributes a special merit living in her.
The modern Zionism, political movement of a century of antiquity for the comeback of the exiled Jewish people, his historical homeland, is the secular face of the same currency: inspired by a miscellany of the nationalism of the XIXth century and centuries of absence of hearth and oppression to the Jews, the Zionism sees in Israel the homeland of the Jewish people place in which all of them can achieve the maximum expression of his national identity, as well as serve as refuge for the chased ones.
These two approaches converge turning living in Israel in a definitive affirmation of the Judaism, and the immigration here is considered to be by many Jews and Israelis an admirable step worth being praised. The Hebrew word for immigration (aliß) it means ascent or a spiritual elevation. In well-known contrast, therefore, to practically any other nation - in which the immigrant communities are discouraged, limited, or considered to be citizens of the second category - Israel not only receives willingly his immigrants, but it is glad with his arrival. It attracts them offering professional retraining, housing and tax reductions. A decrease in the unmigratory numbers causes national worry.
The biggest number of immigrants, for background, comes to Israel from what the Israelis consider to be as "the countries of anxiety" places in which the Jews are not wished, are hated, or chased actively. Throughout his 50 years, nevertheless, Israel has received also hundreds of thousands of immigrants of the free world persons motivated principally by the idealism. About 200.000 persons have immigrated to Israel of the American continent, and more of the double of Western Europe (without including the survivors of Holocausto).
The first years of the State. The biggest unmigratory waves came to Israel during the first three years of the state, Between 1948 and 688.000 persons came 1951, more that duplicating the Jewish population of the young country. Almost half of them came from the Europe posholocausto of the camps for displaced persons, from centers of detention and of destroyed communities. Most of the others were coming from the Moslem countries of Africa and from the Middle East, in that the establishment of Israel was putting them in danger.
Israel helped in more that it could. Marseilles, for example, transformed in the starting point for the European immigrants. While they were waiting for his ships, Israel, across the Jewish Agency, it helped in his accommodation and feeding, and to teach them Hebrew. In May, 1949, when the Imam of Yemen accepted to stop that 45.000 of 46.000 Jews of his country were emigrating, Israeli planes transported them "to house" in the legendary Operation Magic carpet. In 1951, in another air transport magnificently organized the Operation Esdrás and Nejemías 121.000 Jews of Iraq were brought to Israel, putting term to 2.500 years of Jewish life there. The Libyan Jewish life concluded the same year with the emigration of his 32.000 Jews Israel.
Israel received this human flow in 123 transitory camps, 20 new establishments and 78.000 units of housing. About middle of the 50s, almost all the newly arrived persons were residing in permanent housings.
50s and 0. In the 50s, the character of the immigration began changing. The doors of the Eastern Europe were closing, and the focus moved to Noráfrica. Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia obtained his independence and turned against his Jewish communities. About 240.000 Jews norafricanos came to Israel between 1952 and 1964. While they were domineering in the scene of the immigration, others came also from Hungary, Romania and Poland, Egypt and Iran, India and Latin America.
About middle of the 0s, Israel had constructed 448 new establishments and 25 new towns. His agriculture was blooming, the industry was developing, the production had increased in 50 % and the construction valuation was one of the highest of the world. The immigrants were taken straight to permanent housings instead of transitory camps, and 28.000 of them was studying Hebrew in 74 ulpanim (language schools hebreo) in the whole country.
From 1967 until the 70s. The victory of Israel in the war of Six Days of June, 1967 extracted to the unmigratory current of the fall in which it had sunk in the middle of the decade. 23.900 persons came from Western Europe and 17.900 of the United States. The war lit also the Jewish conscience between 2.500.000 Jews of the Soviet Union. Combined with a crescent stop, the result was a new unmigratory wave: towards ends of the 70s 140.000 Soviet Jews had immigrated to Israel.
80s and 90. The liberalization in the USSR and his collapse in 1991 opened the floodgates.
Between 1989 and 1996, nearly 700.000 Jews emigrated from there to Israel, where they constitute today the most numerous national group of the country. During the same years, the ancient and isolated Jewish community of Ethiopia began doing also his way to Israel. A secret mission of rescue that Israel initiated in the middle of the 70 to save the Ethiopian Jews of the drought and of the civil war culminated in two massive air transports. Between November, 1984 and January, 1985 a silent operation of 45 days that took the name of Operation Cradle brought Israel 8.000 Ethiopian Jews. This one was continued in May, 1991 by the Operation Salomón, in which Israel transported 14.200 Jews who were still staying in Ethiopia in 36 hours, reaching the Jewish community of Ethiopian origin in Israel 56.000 souls.
At the beginning of the 90s Israel realized still other actions of rescue in minor scale, but not less daring, to set free the Jewish places communities in war, like Georgia, Moldavia, Tajikistán, the ex-Yugoslavia and Chechnia, and managed to set free finally in Israel to practically all the remnants of the Jewish communities of Syria and Yemen.
The 90s and further on. Nowadays, as 50 years ago, the immigrants keep on coming to Israel, and Israel keeps on receiving them. Those that come from the free world feel attracted not only by his faith or by his Zionism, but also by the form of life and the opportunities of occupation in this modern nation of high technology into which Israel has turned.
And there is still "anxiety countries" place as region of Transdniéster in Moldavia, Tajikistán, Ukraine, Azerbaiján and some Arab countries in which Israel supports the vigilant eye for the destination of these Jewish communities.
The dramatic missions of rescue of last moment are only the beginning of the history. What it continues is finding a place where to live, to study and to work, to learn Hebrew and to adapt itself to the clamorous democracy and to the vivid, multicultural and multiethnic society who is the today Israel. Israel has 50 years of experience in helping the immigrants to take root.
The errors committed in the integration of the yemenitas in the 50s and the norafricanos in the 0s served as lesson and they have been corrected, at least partially, with the Ethiopians and the Rumanians in the 80s and 90s. The process is still not perfect, but the Jews who come to the Jewish State be already because they want to do it, or because they turn out to be forced to do it they are well received, they are helped, and possibly they integrate to the Mosaic coloring of the modern Israel.
Source: MFA - Foreign Office of Israel