Prime minister of Israel 1974-1977 and 1992-1995
1922 - 1995
Chief of Staff of the FDI, diplomatic and fifth Prime minister of the State of Israel - was born in Jerusalem in 1922, son of a family of fervent Zionist Labours Parties members.
Rabín finished his studies in the secondary school with distinction in the Agricultural School Kaduri and then it joined the Palmaj - the force of shock of elite of the organization of clandestine defense Haganá.
It differed like military leader from early, for his seven years of service in the Palmaj. After the dismantling of this force with the establishment of the State of Israel, Rabín threw himself to a military career in the FDI that extended in two decades.
Reaching the major general status at the age of 32 of age, Rabín instituted the doctrine of training of the FDI and the style of leadership that happened to be known like the order of "follow me!". In 1962 Chief of Staff was designated and promoted to the status of general lieutenant.
It developed the doctrine of combat of the FDI - based on the movement and the surprise - that was used during the War of Six Days in 1967, when the attainment of the supremacy in the air and the massive deployment of the armored forces they drove to the famous military victory. In January, 1968, after 26 years in uniform, Rabín was dismissed of the FDI.
He was nominated an ambassador in the United States in 1968. For five years in Washington it fought to consolidate the bilateral relations and an important role played in the promotion of the "strategic cooperation" with the United States, which led to the massive American military help to Israel.
Rabín returned to Israel in 1973, before the War of Iom Kipur. He happened to be an active member of the Labour party; he was elected a member of the Knéset in the general elections of December, 1973 and Secretary of Labor was invested in the government formed by Golda Meir in March, 1974. This government resigned soon, and on June 2, 1974 the Knéset gave his vote of confidence to a new government formed by Itzjak Rabín.
Itzjak Rabín, the first born Prime minister in Israel, it showed a style of leadership that was frank, direct and sometimes flat up to the point of seeming rough. Not only it had to face to the need to rehabilitate the FDI, to solve social problems and to improve the economy of the country, but had to reconstruct also the public confidence in the military leadership and the politician.
This task turned out to be complicated by internal scandals, an increasing industrial anxiety and personal rivalries inside the office. In 1975, Rabín concluded the Temporary Agreement with Egypt, which he led to the Israeli retreat of the Suez Canal in exchange for the free transit of the Israeli navigation for him. As result of this agreement, the first Memorandum of Understanding was signed between the government of Israel and the United States, assuring the American support to the Israeli interests in the international scene, and a renewed help of this country.
In July, 1976, the government headed by Itzjak Rabín arranged the "Operation Entebbe" for the rescue of the passengers of Air France kidnapped by terrorists and led to Uganda. In this daring operation, to thousands of kilometers of distance of house, the hostages were liberated and transported unharmed to Israel. The commander of the operation, lieutenant colonel Yonatán Netaniahu, turned out to be a dead person in the combat in the Entebbe airport.
A vote of suspicion demolished the Rabín government, moving forward the elections. It was named to head to the Labour Movement in the elections, more after there was known the existence of a bank account of his wife in the USA - a violation of the regulations of foreign currency - impelled Rabín to resign from the leadership of the party before the elections of 1977, which brought the leader of the opposition, Menajem Beguin, to occupy the charge.
During the following two decades, Rabín was a member of the Knéset. For six years (1984-1990), he was a Minister of Defence in two governments of national unit, preparing the safety dispositions on the israelo-Lebanese border that allowed the Israeli troops to move back to a narrow safety area. Rabín guided also the initial answer of the country to the intifada. From March, 1990 until June, 1992, Rabín got out of debt again like parliamentarian of the opposition.
In February, 1992 the Labour party carried out his first primary elections: Rabín was an elect president of the party and, after the electoral victory of 1992, there began his second period as Prime minister and Minister of Defence.
The second period of Rabín like Prime minister was marked by two historical events - the Agreements of Oslo with the Palestinians and the Treaty of Peace with Jordan. Working closely with Shimón Peres, the Secretary of State and the one who was for the long time his rival, planned and guided the negotiations on the Declaration of Beginning signed with the PLO in the White House in September, 1993. This awarded to Rabín, Peres and Arafat the Nobel Prize of the Peace 1994 and initiated the negotiations with the Palestinians on the autonomy in Gaza and some areas of Judea and Samaria, and on the establishment of an Authority Palestine. Then, in October, 1994, a Treaty of Peace was signed with the Kingdom of Jordan. This stimulated the relations development with other Arab countries in Noráfrica and the Persian Gulf.
On November 4, 1995, on having moved back from a masses assembly for the peace, under the motto of "Yes to the peace, not to the violence", Itzjak Rabín was murdered by a Jew of the extreme right. He was 73 years old the day of his death, it was buried before a shivery and aching nation, in an official funeral in the Mount Herzl de Jerusalem, at which leaders of the whole world were present.
Source: MFA - Foreign Office of Israel