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Menajem Begin
Prime minister of Israel 1977-1983

Menajem Beguin - commander of the clandestine, parliamentary movements and sixth Prime minister of the State of Israel - was born in Brest-Litovsk, Poland, in 1913. Excited Zionist from his youth, enroló in the youth movement Betar 16 years after age.

In the middle of the 30s it graduated in right. In 1938 the leader of Betar happened to be Poland, an organization of 70.000 members that was part of the national movement founded by Jabotinsky. Beguin concentrated on the military training, foreseeing the need to defend the judeidad of Poland. After the Second World war exploded he fled to Vilna, he was arrested in 1940 by the NKVD (organization before to the KGB) and he was sentenced to eight years in a work camp in Siberia. It was liberated in 1941 by his Polish citizenship and it joined the Free Polish Army, who in 1943 went to the Middle East.

They contacting with the inactive clandestine organization of the national movement - Irgún Tzevaí Leumí (Etzel) - Beguin tackled his revitalization. In 1944, when the magnitude of the Holocaust was clear, the Etzel broke with the Zionist general containment politics. Under the leadership of Beguin the rhythm and the scope of the challenges of the Etzel to the British domain increased, and after the war it arranged many of the operations of the movement, including the escape of the prison of Aco and the destruction of the British central administrative offices in the Hotel King David de Jerusalem. The increasing militancy of the operations of the Etzel placed Beguin in conflict with the central Zionist Ben-Gurión strategy - causing a rupture politician ideological and a personal rancor between both leaders that lasted many years. After the establishment of the Forces of Defense of Israel (FDI) on the part of the Provisional Government, in June, 1948, two dissident military organizations (Etzel and Leji) were dismantled and his members were incorporated in the FDI.

Menajem Beguin went to the parliamentary politics, founding the party Jerut, which was based on the political ideology of his mentor, Zeev Jabotinsky. As member of the Knéset, dominated the political opposition to the hegemony of the Labour party that was governing during the first three decades of independence of Israel.

For his years as leader of the opposition of right, Beguin, a talented and charismatic orator, it gave expression to his disapproval of the government policy not only in the parliament, but also in public declarations. In the 50s it directed the movement against the repairs agreements with West Germany and after the Campaign of the Sinai of 1956 - the opposition to the retreat of the Sinai. In 1965, Beguin fused his party Jerut with a liberal party, merger that served as base for the future party Likud.

Two years later, the crisis before to the explosion of the War of Six Days drove to the formation of a government of national unit, of which Beguin was a member. For almost three years, Beguin was a part of the entity that was adopting the resolutions, until a disagreement with regard to an initiative of American peace (the Plan Rogers) impelled it to resign.

In the elections of 1977, the party Likud de Beguin obtained 43 benches in the Knéset, opposite to 32 of the Labour Alignment. Menajem Beguin assumed the Prime minister charge, serving in him for six years and a half - from the spring 1977 until the autumn 1983. 

His leadership style, with a more formal appearance and emphasis on ceremonial aspects of government - it was distinctly different from the attitude of "open shirt" of his predecessors. In internal matters, Beguin rearranged the priorities, canalizing more national resources to development programs like the Project Renewal, which took charge of the rehabilitation of disadvantageous quarters and cities of development. After thirty years of Labour government, his party also tried, although with little success, to relieve the centralization and liberalize the economy. Also, it intensified the national campaign for the right of the Soviet Jews to his repatriation in Israel and gave the orders for the evacuation of the Jewish community of Ethiopia, which took place newly some years later.

The most outstanding achievement of the prime minister Beguin was the signature of the Treaty of Peace with Egypt. In November, 1977, six months after Beguin was taking up office like prime minister, the Egyptian president Anwar Sadat it came to Jerusalem. This visit initiated two years of negotiations that culminated with the agreements of Camp David, which were calling to the Israeli retreat of the Sinai and the establishment of a Palestinian autonomy, in exchange for the peace and the normal relations with Egypt. The Treaty of Peace that was putting term to the belligerency state between both countries was signed in 1970. The prime minister Beguin and the president Sadat were distinguished by the Nobel Prize of the Peace 1978 by this achievement. In the spring 1982, in spite of the wide protests in Israel, Beguin - that was giving a lot of importance to the legal documents - moved back from the Sinai, including the city of Yamit and other Jewish establishments.

In 1981 Beguin arranged by force Air to destroy the nuclear reactor in Osirak, close to Baghdad, Iraq, a little time before it was beginning being operative. The knowledge of the above mentioned decision and his successful execution, that they were condemned for the international community in his moment, they were absolutely clear a decade later - in the War of the Persian Gulf in 1991.

Two times during the exercise of Beguin like Prime minister threw military actions in answer to Palestinian terrorist acts from Lebanese territory against Israeli citizens: the "Operation Litani" of 1978 and the "Operation Peace for the Galilee" of 1982. Both operations were destined to evict the PLO of the south of the Lebanon. The Operation of 1982 was extended to a conflict with complex ramifications and a big number of victims. 

The tensions of the charge, problems of health and the death of his wife led Menajem Beguin to resigning from his charge in September, 1983 and being imprisoned in his hearth. He died in March, 1992, at the age of 79.

Source: MFA - Foreign Office of Israel

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