Health and Social services
"The whole Israel is responsible one for the ottro."
(Talmud of Babylonia, Shavuot 39th)
The high levels of the health services of Israel, the excellent quality of the investigation and the medical resources, the modern hospitable facilities and an impressive proportion of doctors and specialists with regard to the population are reflected in the low valuation of infant mortality (5,4 for every 1.000 living births) and the high expectations of life (80,9 years for women, 76,7 for males). The medical attention for all, from the infancy up to the old age, is assured by law, and the national payment in health is compared favorably with that of other developed country.
The foundations of the system of health, which include a national network of preventive services, of diagnosis and of treatment, were placed during the period previous to the state by the Jewish community and the authorities of the British Order, which administered the country from 1918 until 1948. This way, when the state of Israel was established, the medical infrastructure of the country was already well developed, the immunization was a regular procedure and the frames were already in functioning to improve the environmental conditions. Nevertheless, in the first years of the state, the health services should face have again some of the problems already overcome to face to the needs for hundreds of thousands of refugees of the Europe of postwar period and of the Arab countries. This challenge was faced across an intense national effort, which meant the granting of special services, as well as a program of long scope of education for the health and of preventive medicine.
The population of the country is attended by an extensive medical network that comprises hospitals, clinics and centers of preventive medicine and of rehabilitation. The hospitable attention there includes the most advanced procedures and skills, from in vitro fertilization, exploration computarizada CAT and complicated cerebral surgery up to transplants of bone marrow and of organs.
The centers of attention for the mother and the child, for the mother during the pregnancy and the child from the birth up to the early childhood, offer prenatal reviews, early detection of mental or physical impediments, vaccinations, regular paediatrics and education for the health.
Administration and structure
The responsibility for all the health services relapses on the Department of Health, which prepares the legislation and supervises his implementation; it controls the medical standards along the country; it supports quality norms for food and medicines; it grants the licenses to the medical personnel; he promotes the medical research; he evaluates the health services and supervises the planning and hospitals construction. Also, the department acts like a public agency for the health as for the environmental and preventive medicine.
Approximately 29.000 doctors, 8.000 dentists and 5.000 pharmacists of Israel exercise his profession like members of the teams of hospitals and local clinics, as well as in practice deprived. About 0 % of 44.000 nurses of Israel is qualified and the others are practical nurses.
The training for the medical professions is provided by four schools of medicine, two schools of odontology, two of pharmacology and about 20 nurses' schools, four of which grant university title. In several institutions there are given also courses of physical therapy, occupational therapy and nutrition, as well as courses for laboratory technical staff and technical radiologists.
Courteousness of Maguen David Adom
Maguen David Adom, the medical service of emergency of Israel, provides a network of stations of the first help, a program at national level of blood donations, banks of blood and courses of the first help, a public service of ambulances that includes units of intensive treatment. The organization works with the help of 6.000 volunteers, many of them pupils of secondary schools, which get out of debt in 86 branches along the country.
The Law for the National Insurance of Health provides a uniform basket of medical services that include the hospitalization, for all the inhabitants of the country. The medical services are provided in the country by four boxes of medical insurance comprehensivo, which are forced to accept every candidate without importing age or state of health.
The principal financing source is a monthly valuation for medical insurance of up to 4,8 per cent of the revenue, which is collected by the Institute of National Insurance and the participation of the employers in the cost of the insurance of his personnel. The insurance boxes receive a refund in accordance with the average of the policyholders' quantity, calculated by age, distance from the hearth up to the medical establishment and other criteria determined by the Department of Health.
Problems of health
The Snake of Copper, Biblical symbol of the healing, eats away to the dragon of the death
Wall mosaic of Lev Syrkin, in the Faculdad of Medicine of the Tejnión in Haifa
With permission of the artist
The problems of health are similar to those who prevail in the western world. Since the cardiac illnesses and the cancer cause close to two third parts of the deaths, his study is of national priority. Also, another area of big worry is the medical attention of the biggest persons, the problems that arise from environmental changes and the conditions originated from the current life style, as well as the traffic accidents and labor. Educational programs are used extensively for the health destined to the need to suspend habits like smoking, eating in excess and the absence of physical exercises, which have demonstrated to be harmful for the health. Often campaigns are carried out to increase the conscience of the workpeople and the chauffeurs with regard to the potential dangers.
Environmental problems have arisen and of health like result of the rapid growth of the population and of the constant expansion of the agricultural and industrial activities in a brief period and inside a small surface. More of 70 porciento of the industries of Israel are concentrated along a narrow coastal stripe on that the meteorological conditions are unfavorable for the dispersion of pollutant elements. To fight the contamination of the coastal stripe of the Mediterranean and of the Red Sea, Israel has adopted a many-sided program of legislation and implementation: beach cleanliness and coasts, and international activities, principally inside the Plan of Action of the Mediterranean.
Under conditions of water scarcity and intensive development, the degradation of the water quality constitutes a critical problem. Are the principal causes of the contamination of the groundwaters the chemical fertilizers, pesticides, entry of sea water and waters of the desag? and servant or industrialist. A high priority has been granted to the treatment of the waters served to protect the environmental and public health and to develop an additional water source for the agricultural irrigation. A rehabilitation program has interfered for fluvial routes contaminated with the target to transform them into vital drinking water resources with an ecological and recreational value. The water quality in these currents is controlled regularly and the drinkable water quality is definitely supervised.
The factors that affect the quality of the air include the production of energy, the transports and the industry. In answer to the alarming levels of contamination in the highly industrialized urban areas, principally along the coastal plain, a new program has begun comprehensivo for the administration of the air resources, which includes the establishment of norms of pollutants' emananción and the enlargement of the national system of alertness of the air. The coal use of low sulfide and oil for the energy production has helped to reduce greatly the concentrations of oxides of sulfide, but the pollutant emanations related to the increase of the traffic vehícular have risen greatly. New measurements, which include the unleaded petrol and the catalysts will help to fight the contamination originated from these sources.
Israel confronts an increasing problem of solid garbage as result of the rapid growth of the population, the industry and the consumption. Hundreds of dumps badly produced generate environmental dangers and of health. To overcome this problem, Israel is implementing a plan to eliminate the illegal dumps and to replace them by the new some in a few inoffensive areas for the environment, as well as to facilitate the step to a technology that produces few ones or no waste, as it is stipulated in the recycling law recently put in force.
The sure handling of dangerous substances is stipulated in a legislation put in validity to provide, from beginning to end, administration, including authorization, regulation and supervision of the diverse aspects of his production, use and handling. The implementation of the legislation and of the new national plan that occupies of the accidents product of dangerous substances will minimize the potential dangers for the health and the environment.
In addition to the measurements of regulation and education like essential component of an environmental policy, Israel offers financial bonuses to the companies that they invest in facilities of supervision and treatment of the contamination and in technologies and inoffensive materials for the environment.
The Law of National Insurance (1954) grants to the population a scale of benefits provided by the Institute of National Insurance, an autonomous entity that works under the patronage of the Department of Labour and Social welfare. His activities are financed by obligatory allocations of employers, personnel and self employeds, in addition to the state budget.
The government policy of mantención of income is carried out by the Institute of Social Insurance in the shape of supplementary assistance to families and individuals whose income is below a certain minimum. The general allocations for son increase the familiar revenue, especially in families of four or more children. An amendment to the Law of National Insurance provides the elders dependent on the help of other persons for his long-term daily needs, an attention, be already in your own house, or in residential institutions. The Institute of National Insurance also administers the program of national insurance of health of Israel.
Benefits of the Institute of National Insurance
Allocations for children 37 %
Pensions for elders and relatives 25 %
Bonuses and allocations for maternity 7 %
Pensions for disabled persons 5 %
Supplementary payments to the income 5 %
Unemployment insurance 4 %
Allocations for labor injuries, invalidity and dependency 4 %
Payments of long-term attention 4 %
Another 9 %
Source: MFA - Foreign Office of Israel