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Israeli culture
Culture of Israel


Literature

The Week of the Hebrew Book turns squares and parks on rough books markets in the cities and villages of the whole country.
Israel is an inspiration source for the writers and poets of the country. A nation in development erected on an ancient undivided assets, exists in the middle of complex social relations. The changes have happened rapidly and untimely: the period of the pioneers, the struggle for the independence, the construction of the country, the wars and the massive immigrations of all parts of the world. Every new epoch, every social change has brought new challenges, creating a dynamics of constant worry. Each of these himself, and they all in combined form provide material for the literary creation. The prose and the poetry extract motives, images and a wealth of expressions of the Bible, of other Jewish sources (Mishná, Talmud and Kabalá) and of the creative traditions of the Jewish people in the diaspora, as well as of the lexicon and of the rhythm of the daily language.

Renaissance of the Hebrew Language

The Hebrew is the language of Israel. Although virtually it stopped being spoken about the year 200 EC, it kept on being an employee for the Jews along the generations like the "sacred language" in the liturgy, the philosophy and the literature. Towards ends of the XIXth century, it emerged like a modern cultural environment, turning into a vital factor in the movement of national renaissance that culminated in the political Zionism. The administration of the British Order the Hebrew recognized as as an official language of the country, along with English and the Arab, and his use was adopted as the Jewish institutions and his educational networks. The Hebrew press and literature bloomed with new generations of authors and readership, and nowadays it is a vivid, rich and vibrant language. Of approximately 8.000 words in the Biblical times, the Hebrew vocabulary has been extended to more than 120.000 words. His development ling? ístico formal it is guided by the Academy of the Hebrew Language (established in 1953).

Eliezer Ben-Yehuda

Eliezer Ben-Yehudá (1858-1922) initiated the impulse for the renaissance of the Hebrew like a spoken language. After immigrating to the Earth of Israel in 1881, he was a pioneer in the employment of the Hebrew in the hearth and in the school, he minted thousands of new words, established two newspapers in Hebrew, co-initiated the Committee of Hebrew Language (1890) and compiled several of 17 volumes of the Finished Dictionary of Ancient and Modern Hebrew, which was initiated in 1910 and concluded by his second wife and his son in 1959.

Prose

The modern Hebrew prose in the Earth of Israel was written in a beginning by immigrant authors. Although his roots were in the world and the traditions of the judeidad of Eastern Europe, his works were turning principally on the creative achievements in the Earth of Israel, to which they had come "to construct and to form". Yosef Jaim Brenner (1881-1921) and Shmuel Yosef Agnón (1888-1970), which impelled the Hebrew prose in the XXth century, are considered to be by many the parents of the modern Hebrew literature, although they did not act as alone not out of a historical context.

Brenner torn between the hope and the desperation, in conflict with his doubts with regard to the difficulties of the Zionist company in the Earth of Israel and to the low spiritual quality of certain sectors inside the yishuv - the Jewish community in Palestine (Earth of Israel) before the establishment of the state. It saw defects in everything and there was afraid of future events with regard to the meeting between the populations Jewish woman and Arab of the region. In his effort to receive the reality, he preferred the rabbinical and medieval forms of colloquial Hebrew, creating new idiomatic expressions and using a dramatic syntax to grant the effect of a living speech. A central element in the works of Brenner is his identification so much with the physical struggle of the pioneers for taking hold in a ground arid and hard, very different from the European countries in which they had been born and the struggle, not less difficult, for delineating the identity of the Jew in the Earth of Israel.

Agnón chose to use more modern forms of the Hebrew language in his works. His familiarity with the Jewish tradition, together with the influence of the European literature of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth century, created a body of fiction that treats about the principal spiritual worries of the hour, the disintegration of the traditional forms of life, the loss of the faith and the subsequent loss of the identity. As orthodox Jew and writer of intuition and psychological vision, Agnón expressed his affinity with the shaded and irrational aspects of the human psyche and an identification with the internal suspense of the believing Jew and not believer. The reality painted by Agnón, turns into a tragic, sometimes grotesque ambience, with an influence of the war and the Holocaust into many of his works, and the world of the pious Jews is revealed by all his passions and tensions. In 1966, Agnón was a co-recipient of the Nobel Prize of Literature (together with Nelly Sachs), the first Nobel Prize granted to an Israeli.

The writers born in the country that they began publishing in the decade of 1940 and 1950, named often "the generation of the War of the Independence", brought to his works a mentality and a different cultural background that that of his predecessors, firstly because the Hebrew was his mother tongue and his life experience was absolutely established in the Earth of Israel. Authors like S. Yitzhar, Moshé Shamir, Janoj Bartov, Jaim Guri and Benjamín Tammuz hesitated dramatically between the individualism and the commitment to the society and to the state, and presented a model of social realism, often in a heroic way, creating this way a miscellany of local and international influences.

At the beginning of the decade of 190, new approaches of the literary creation in prose were explored by a group of young and very influential writers that it was including to A. B. Yehoshúa, Amós Oz, Yoram Kaniuk and Yaacov Shabtai, which marked a rupture with the ideological molds and centred on the world of the individual. During the following two decades, one experimented with narrative forms and diverse styles of prose, which were including the psychological realism, the allegory and the symbolism, as well as the speculation and the skepticism with regard to the social and political conventionalities of Israel, which happened to be prominent in the contemporary literary creation.

The decades of 1980 and 1990 were witnesses of an explosion of intense literary activity in which the quantity of released books increased in impressive form. As a result of this, several Israeli writers obtained international recognition, between them there stand out Oz, Yehoshúa, Kaniuk, Aharón Appelfeld, David Shájar, David Grossman y Meir Shalev. The confidence in the literature as way that allows to the readership to understand themselves as individual and since part of his environment characterizes to the prose of this period, written by three generations of contemporary authors.

The renewed efforts that have been done to face the tragedy of the Holocaust in Europe have led to the formulation of new forms of expression that treat with fundamental questions that they can only be debated inside the perspective of time and place, which there integrate the distance and the involvement (Appelfeld, Grossman, Yehoshúa Kenaz, Alexander and Yonat Sened, Plain mountains Semel and others).

Topics have appeared previously not penetrated, that include the environment of the Arab village (Anthony Shammas, a Christian Arab writer), the world of the ultraorthodox Jews who are segregated deliberately of the modern society (Yossl Birnstein), the way of life in the courts jasídicas of Jerusalem (Jaim Beer) and attempts to treat the existence of a skeptic in a period in which the lay ideas are succumbing and the religious fundamentalism is receiving force (Yitzjak Auerbach-Orpaz). Another important topic that some Israeli authors are tackling, of origin sefardita, is the place that there take in the society new mentally ill immigrants of Arab countries (Sami Michael, Albert Suissa, Dan Benaya-Seri). Others explore universal topics as the democracy and the justice, as they are seen in the context of a society who is subject to constant challenges in most of the areas of his national life (Yitzjak Ben Ner, Kaniuk, Grossman, Oz).

An important number of women writers has appeared lately, dedicated not only to the world of the conscious women of his place in the Jewish tradition and of his role in the Zionist company (Amalia Cahana-Carmón, Jana Bat-Shájar, Shulamit Hareven, Shulamit Lapid, Ruth Almog, Savión Leibrecht, Batya Gur). Lapid and Gur have penetrated also into the genre detectivesco with acclamation of the both local and foreign criticism.

Recently it has emerged a younger generation of writers, which pushes back big part of the centrality of the Israeli experience and more universalista reveals a tendency, often of mentally ill, surrealistic and idiosyncratic nature. Some of these writers are provided with almost ritual followers, and his new works have a place insured at the head of the lists of the books of major sale (Yehudit Katzir, Etgar Keret, Orly Castel-Blum, Gadi Taub, Irit Linor, Sight Maguen).

In addition to the prolific mass of Hebrew literature, a significant quantity of works, both in prose and in poetry, they appear in other languages, including the Arab, English, French and Spanish. From the last immigration of more than one million Jews originated from the ex-Soviet Union, Israel has turned into the biggest center of literary creation in Russian language out of Russia itself.

During the last years, the Israeli publishers have joined massive form to the area of the electronic publication (multimedia, CD-Rom). The Israeli programs, which cover a wide scale of topics, are sold in the whole world.

Poetry

Written without interruption from the Biblical times up to the present, the Hebrew poetry assembles external influences and internal traditions. The poetry of the past, which incorporates religious and national topics, contains also the motives of the personal experience that are predominant in the poetry of nowadays. A rupture with the traditional poetical expression developed during Iluminismo Judío in Europe (1781-1881), when one was fighting for the finished citizenship of the Jews and a secularization of the Jewish life, and from ends of the XIXth century, when the Zionism, the movement that was calling to the restoration of the Jewish national life in the Earth of Israel, was beginning receiving impulse. The principal poets who emerged of this period, which they immigrated to the Earth of Israel at the beginning of the XXth century, were Jaim Najmán Bialik (1873-1934) and Shaúl Tchernichovsky (1875-1943).

The works of Bialik, which reflect his absolute commitment with the Jewish national renaissance and push back the viability of a Jewish life in Eastern Europe, include tantolargos epic poems that recapture chapters of the Jewish history, like pure lyric poetry that turns on the love and the nature. Bialik, called often 'national poet' or 'the poet of the renaissance of the Hebrew', forged a new poetical, free language of the enormous Biblical influence of his predecessors, and supporting the classic structure and the expression clarity by means of a rich and studied, but contemporary phraseology. His poems are memorized by generations of Israeli students.

Tchernichovsky, who wrote lyric poetry, dramatic epic, ballads and allegories, thought about how to rectify the world of the Jew injecting a spirit of pride and personal dignity as well as a high conscience of the nature and the beauty. His sense of the language, which includes an affinity for the rabbinical Hebrew, was different from the language of Bialik, which was integrating the Biblical influence with the emergent colloquial form. Both, Bialik and Tchernichovsky, represent the transition of the ancient Jewish poetry to the modern genre.

Abraham Shlonsky, Natán Alterman, Lea Goldberg y Uri Zvi Grinberg headed the following generation of poets, who wrote in the years that they preceded the establishment of the state and during the first years of state life.

Was Shlonsky using a stream of images and of inventions ling? ísticas in his poetry as well as in his prolific translations of classic poetry, especially of the Russian. The works of Alterman, many of which stand out for his political comment, they accompanied every stage of the development of the Jewish community and they are characterized by the wealth of language and a variety of poetical forms, tone and heap, images and metaphors. Goldberg expanded the lyricism bogey in poems that they speak about the city, the nature and the human being in search of the love, contact and attention. Grinberg, who wrote a poetry of desperation and anger using violent images, devoted himself principally to nationalistic topics and to the impact of the Holocaust. This poets' cluster was the first one in introducing the colloquial rhythms in the Hebrew poetry; they re-lived through ancient idiomatic expressions and minted other piece of news, granting to the ancient language a new flexibility and wealth.

The poetry of this period, which was influenced to a great extent by the Russian futurism and the symbolism and by the German expressionism, was tending to the classic structure and the melody of a tidy heap. It was reflecting images and sceneries of the native country of the poet and fresh visions in his new country of a heroic way, as well as memories of 'there' and the desire to throw roots 'here', expressing, as Lea Goldberg wrote, "the pain of two homelands". To many of the poems music consisted them and there happened to be an integral part of the popular culture of the country.

The first poet important woman in Hebrew was a Rajel Bluwstein (1890-1931), who was met simply like "Rajel". His works established the normative foundation of the feminine Hebrew poetry as well as the expectations of the public of this poetry. His lyric, brief, emotional style, without intellectual pretensions and personnel, has prevailed, as one sees in most of the works of his contemporaries and of later poetesses like Dahlia Rabikovitch and Mayan Bejerano.

In the middle of the decade of 1950, there arose a new group of young poets, whose mother tongue was the Hebrew headed by Yehudá Amijai, Natán Zaj, Dan Pagis, T. Carmi and David Avidán. This group tended to the modesty, to a general retreat of the collective experiences, to a free observation of the reality and to a colloquial style, and changed the principal poetical influences of Pushkin and Schiller to the modern English and North American poetry. The works of Amijai, which have been translated extensively, are characterized by his use of the daily language, the irony and metaphysical metaphors. These happened to be the stamp of a lot of of the poetry written by his youngest contemporaries, who proclaimed the term of the ideological poetry and broke completely with the tradition of Alterman and Shlonsky of classic structures and of a tidy heap. The works of Zaj extract almost liturgical and musical innovative qualities of the daily Hebrew.

The field of the Hebrew poetry nowadays is a polyphony that understands several generations, in that poets appear veinteañeros along with poets of medium age. Representates of the last group there are Meir Wieselthier, whose prosaic, vulgar and direct diction repudiates all romanticism and raises the image of Tel Aviv as symbol of the reality; Yair Horowitz, whose restrained poems express the kind sadness of a conscious person of their own mortality; and Yona Wallach, which appears in colloquial, sarcastic tones, using archetypal motives, Freudian symbolism, sometimes a brutal sensuality, rhythmic repetitions and long series of associations. Other important current poets are Asher Reich, Arieh Siván, Ronny Somak y Moshé Dor.

The poetry of the most recent generation is dominated by the individualism and the suspense and tends to brief poems written in a colloquial diction, of meter free and not rhymed. The poetry in Israel is provided with a big circle of the reading faithful, and some volumes of poems, of all the periods, sell in editions as wide as published in countries of major population in Occident.

The Institute for the Translation of Hebrew Literature was established in 1962 to acquaint the readership and foreign publishers with the contemporary Hebrew literature. Under his auspices, hundreds of works of fiction, poetry, drama and infantile literature have been published in about 40 languages - from German and the Welsh up to the Hindi and the Chinese. The projects of the Institute change of the preparation of anthologies to the organization of translators' conferences and the participation in international fairs of the book. The database computarizada with the institute and the annual bibliographies of translated Hebrew literature they provide information to investigators of the whole world. Modern Hebrew Literature publishes the Institute also, a semi-annual magazine in English.

Infantile literature

The infantile literature, which includes original texts and translations of outstanding figures of many languages, integrates a wide variety of topics and styles of prose, reflecting a world tendency towards a more direct and sophisticated approach of the language and the intellectual content on having written for children.

During the first decade of life of the state, most of the children's books in Hebrew were centring on the reigning social values of pionerismo, struggle and achievements, emphasizing the individual obligation to the construction of the country. They were full of mottoes and of admiration for the heroes, occupying a central place the national aspect. With big frequency the authors were using the pronoun "we" instead of "me".

From ends of the decade of 190, the transmission of values of the adults in the infantile literature was replaced gradually by the infantile world itself, treating topics like the death, the divorce, the families unipaternales, the handicapped persons, the adolescence and the struggle for the attainment of a proper place in the family and the society. At the same time, there have been written also many books and infantile stories of big imagination, offering to the reading young people a pure fantasy, entertainment and escapism.

The motivation to lead to the open question, and the stimulus for the independent thought there have happened to be basic elements of the current infantile literature. Although the topics of social and national meaning keep on being important, now one treats them with major sincerity and opening. Some of the today books tend to deny the stereotype of the diversified society of the country and turn on the immigration of Jews of different places of the world, while others treat about historical works and biographies that center principally on prominent figures that they have contributed to the development of the country in the last hundred years, starting from the renewal of the Jewish life in the Earth of Israel.

With running of the years, a considerable quantity of infantile literature has been written for the diverse age groups. These books are characterized by his good graphic design and differ in his psychological sensibility, as well as in an expressive and picturesque use of the language that allows to the young reader to be identified by the history of a dynamic way. Many of these children's books are being printed at present on the whole world, on translations to a wide languages variety.

Visual arts

From the beginning of the XXth century, the Fine arts in Israel have demonstrated a creative orientation that has been influenced by the meeting between East and Occident, as well as by the country in and his development, the character of the cities and the tendencies of style that come from the centers of art of the foreigner. In painting, sculpture, photo and other artistic forms, the varied scenery of the country is the protagonist: the mounts and the hillsides staggered in the shape of patios produce special dynamics of line and form; the hills of the Néguev, the domineering greenish gray vegetation and the clear luminosity provoke distinctive color effects; and the sea and the sand affect the surfaces. In general, the sceneries, worries and politics places, as well as the same nature of the Israeli existentialism they are in the center of the Israeli art and assure his singularity.

The artistic activity organized in the country started in 1906, the year in which the Teacher Boris Schatz (1867-1932) came from Bulgaria and founded the School of Arts and Crafts Betzalel, in accordance with a plan approved in the Zionist Congress of 1905 to stimulate talented Jewish young people to study art in the Earth of Israel. About 1910, the school was provided with 32 different departments, a student body of 500 pupils and a market ready to acquire his works in Jewish the whole world.

In addition to painters and sculptors, the artistic life of the country comprises a multitude of talented craftsmen (ceramists, goldsmiths, weavers, calligraphers, glass glass-blowers, etc.) many of which specialize in modern interpretations of traditional Jewish ritual objects. 

The enthusiasm for the art exists between the people of all the social classes; the Israelis promote and support artistic activities being present at exhibitions, there are already retrospectives of an individual artist or group exhibitions comprehensivas in the multiple museums and galleries deprived of the country, frequenting the artists' quarters in Safed and in Yafo or village artists' of Ein Hod and acquiring works of local artists.

Painting

At first, the artistic orientation of Betzalel, which was trying to create a "Jewish original art", melting the European skills with the influences mesorientales, resulted in paintings of Biblical scenes that were representing romantic interpretations of the past related to Utopian visions of the future, to images extracted so much from the ancient oriental Jewish communities as from the local Bedouins. Between the artists of this period include Shmuel Hirszenberg (1865-1908), Efraim Lilien, (1874-1925) and Abel Pann (1883-1963).

The first exhibition of important art (1921) realized in David's Citadel in the Old City of Jerusalem, was dominated by painters of the School Betzalel. Soon, nevertheless, the oriental - national anachronistic narrative Betzalel style was defied so much by rebellious young people inside the Betzalel establishment as by artists newly arrived persons, who began looking for an expression adapted for what they were calling "Hebrew" art, in opposition to "Jew". In an attempt to define his new cultural identity and to express his vision of the country like source of national renewal, they painted the daily reality of the panorama of the Middle East, emphatically in the brilliant light and the shining colors of the scenery, and emphasized such exotic topics like the simple Arab life style by means of a predominantly primitive skill, as one sees in the painters' works like Israel Paldi, Tziona Tagger, Pinhas Litvinovsky, Nahum Gutman y Reuven Rubin. About middle of the decade, many artists had settled in the dynamic and new city of Tel Aviv (founded in 1909), which keeps on being the center of the artistic activity of the country.

The art of the 30s was hard influenced by the innovations in Occident at the beginning of the XXth century, the most powerful of which was the expressionism that was coming from the workshops of Paris. Painters' works like Moshé Castel, Menajem Shemi and Arié Aroj were tending to paint the portrait of a reality emotionally loaded and often mystical by means of his use of the distortion, and, although the topics kept on turning concerning the sceneries and the local images, the narrative components of ten years earlier disappeared gradually and the Moslem oriental world disappeared completely. The German expressionism was introduced in the middle of the decade with the arrival of the artists who were fleeing of the terror increasing Nazi. joining the artists born in Germany Anna Ticho and Leopold Krakauer that they had come to Jerusalem 10 to 20 years earlier, this group, which included Hermann Struck, Mordejai Ardón and Jakob Steinhardt, he devoted himself to a great extent to subjective interpretations of the scenery of Jerusalem and of the mounts that surround it. These artists did a significant contribution to the development of the local art, significantly by means of the direction started to the School Betzalel by Ardón and Steindhart, under whose guide a new generation of artists came to the ripeness.

The rupture with Paris during the Second World war and the trauma of the Holocaust led several artists, including to Castel, Itzjak Danziger and Aharón Kahana to adopting the surgiente ideology 'Canaanea' that was thinking about how to identify with the original inhabitants of the Earth and create a 'new Hebrew village' re-living through ancient myths and pagan motives. The War of Independence of 1948 led other artists as Naftalí Bezem and Avraham Ofek to adopting a politically active style with a clear social message. But the most significant group that formed in this period was that of 'New Horizons', which was trying to liberate the Israeli painting of his local character and his literary associations, and to take it to the sphere of the European contemporary art. Two main currents developed: Yosef Zaritzky, the domineering figure of the group, tended to an atmospheric lyricism characterized by the presence of identifiable fragments of local scenery and cold tones of color. His style was adopted as others, standing out Avigdor Stematsky and Yehezkel Streichman. The second current, a stylized abstraccionismo that was going from the geometricismo to a formalism often based on symbols, was demonstrated hard in the works of the artist born in Romania Marcel Janco, who studied in Paris and was one of the founders of the dadaism. The group Nuevos Horizontes not alone legitimizó the abstract art in Israel, but also he contributed to his predominance until beginning of the decade of 190.

The artists of the year 190 provided the bond relacionador between the activities of the group Nuevos Horizontes and the search of individuality in the following decade. Streichman and Stematsky, both teachers of the Institute Avni in Tel Aviv, influenced hard the second generation of artists that it included to Raffi Lavi, There stimulates Uri, Uri Lifschitz and Lea Nikel who, in his search of a personal image they defied the delicate work of brush of the lyric abstraccionismo with works pluralistas that were including diverse expressive and figurative abstract styles derived from foreign sources. In the School Betzalel, the Ardón influence, especially as for topics and skill, is clear in the works of Avigdor Arija, who developed a world of forms full of an intense spiritual meaning and in the comeback to figurative topics that evoke the Holocaust, and traditional Jewish topics, as it is evident in the surrealistic paintings of Yossl Bergner and Samuel Bak. Jacob Agam is a pioneer in the optical and kinetic art, and his works are exhibited in many countries of the world.

Although the characteristics minimalistas of the art in the decade of 1970 almost always included transparent forms and amorphous reminiscentes of the local abstract painting, the exhibition of ideas more than the esthetics dominated the artists' works as Larry Abramson y Moshé Gershuni. The artists of the decade of 1980 and of 1990, being employed at an ambience of individual experimentation, seem to be looking for the content and sense of the spirit of Israel integrating a wide scale of materials and skills, as well as of images based on local and universal elements as diverse as the letters of the Hebrew alefato and the human emotions of tension and fear. The current currents, as they express themselves in the works of Pinhas Cohen-Gan, Deganit Beresht, Gabi Klasmer, Tsibi Gueva, Tzvi Goldstein, David Reeb and others, keep on fighting for the enlargement of the definition of the Israeli art beyond his concepts and traditional materials, so much like the only expression of an indigenous culture and as dynamic component of the contemporary western art.

Sculpture

The art of the sculpture bloomed in the country thanks to the efforts of a few sculptors during a long period. Although Avraham Melnicoff known by his massive lion of stone in Tel Jai, and Zeev Ben-Zvi introduced the cubism, the school of more academic sculpture, represented by Moshe Ziffer, Aharón Priver and Batya Lishansky, dominated the field before the establishment of the state.

At the end of the decade of 1940, the ideology 'Canaanea' influenced a series of artists, between whom there stands out Itzjak Danziguer whose figure of the pagan hero - hunter Nimrod, sculpted in red sandy stone nubia, is an attempt of creating a synthesis between the sculpture of the Middle East and the modern concept of the human body, while the forms that shape his sculpture of the sheep remember the rocks of the desert, the water channels and the Bedouins' shops. The sculpture in the decade of 1950 used new materials and a monumental scale on having turned in more and more abstract, stimulated partly for the recent introduction of the use of the iron and of the steel like a way of statuesque expression.

The desire to provide a tangible memory of those that fell down in the wars of Israel granted to the sculpture, from the decade of 190, a new stimulus and many big monuments, mostly not figurative, they were incorporated into the Israeli scenery. This genre is represented by the naval steel brief in Ajziv, work of Yejiel Shemi, which treats so much about the rigor of the nature as of the human capacity to the violence and the destruction, and for the 'Monument to the Brigade of the Néguev' of Dani Karaván, in the outskirts of Beer Sheva, which evokes the special character of the struggle in the desert.

Under the influence of the French school in general and of the expressionism in particular, and using a wide scale of materials, the contemporary conceptual artists are creating monuments and environmental sculptures to show his individual reactions to the social and political reality. Incorporating a powerful game of forms and symbols, the works of Yigal Tumarkin express his protest against the war by means of geometric and figurative abstract forms, while the tendency towards the geometric minimalism stands out especially in the persistent use of Menashé Kadishman of images of sheep, which remember both a pastoral local image and a personal myth that symbolizes the defenseless victim.

Several Israeli sculptors have obtained international recognition, including to Tumarkin, Karaván, Kosso Eloul and Israel Hadany, whose works can be seen in places public and deprived abroad. 

Photo

Nowadays the photo is characterized by his intimacy, the containment and the worry for me, it is so much a reaction and a product of the informative romantic style that dominated his first development stages. In the middle of the XIXth century, the local photo was based to a great extent on the granting of photographic services, concentrating in painting the portrait of the Holy Places (principally the Christians) to sell them like memories to pilgrims and tourists.

From 1880, the photographers began to document the development of the Jewish community in Palestine (Earth of Israel), painting the portrait of the pioneers while they were working the ground and were constructing cities and villages across a heroic lens faced to a modern and lay ideology, and to the clients' requirements that were using his photos to promote specific causes as that of the Jewish National Fund.

The development of the country in his first years was registered faithfully by a series of photographers of press, some assets up to today, as Tim Guidal, David Rubinguer, Werner Braun, Boris Carmi, Zev Radovan, David Harris y Mija Bar Am. Crossing the invisible limit between the 'photo as papers' and the 'artistic photo', is told, between others, Aliza Auerbach, which centers on the portrait; Neil Folberg, Doron Horwitz and Shai Ginott, who devote themselves to the nature; David Darom, an expert submarine photographer; and Dubi Tal and Moni Haramati, a team that specializes in the aerial photography.

In the last years, as the photo as pure artistic way has turned into a legitimate artistic form, several creative photographers have been emerging, with the support of galleries, museums healers and collectors. The current photo is highly personal, it touches questions of life and death, art and illusion, in styles that go from the formalist and minimalista up to the pictorial and intellectual - conceptual one. Diverse events have arisen for the exhibition of photographic works, being the most important of them the photo biennial one in Mishkán LeOmanut in the kibbutz Ein Jarod, and the new Museum of Photo in Tel Jai, in north Galilee.

Museums

About 200 museum along the country million visitors register a year. Big or small, in cities, peoples or kibutzim, are treasures of archaeology, ethnography and local history; of art - ancient and modern; and of craft, from the primitive one to the sophisticated one.

The Museum Israel in Jerusalem, founded (1965) like the national museum of the country, comprises several principal sections: the collection of the Museum Betzalel of Fine arts, Judaic and Ethnography, which exhibits typical items of diverse Jewish communities of the diaspora, art galleries, rooms for periods and a comprehensiva selection of artistic objects of Africa, North and South America, Oceania and the Far East; an archaeological wing that contains objects from the prehistoric times until the XVth century; a sculptures garden with more than 0 works; the Sanctum of the Book, which lodges the only Biblical manuscripts that include the Rolls of the Dead Sea; a juvenile wing that comprises galleries, rooms of classes and workshops, with an extensive educational program; the Museum Rockefeller in oriental Jerusalem, which contains a collection of archaeology of the region; the Center of Art Paley in oriental Jerusalem that carries out programs for Arab children; and the House Ticho, an art gallery and a popular coffee in a centenary mansion in the center of Jerusalem. Regularly a wide scale of temporary exhibitions is offered, as well as activities that go from conferences, workshops and movies up to concerts of camera and classes of art.

The Art museum of Tel Aviv (est. 1932), that inaugurated his current building in 1971, comprises four central galleries that lodge a comprehensiva collection of classic and contemporary art, especially Israeli art; a juvenile wing; an auditorium in which there are realized regularly recitals, concerts of camera and projections of artistic movies; and numerous lounges that exhibit temporary samples. The Pavilion Helena Rubinstein of Modern art also him belongs.

Mishkán leOmanut ("House of the Art", est. 1934) in the Kibbutz Ein Jarod, the first rural museum of the country and the first art museum of the movement kibutziano, it lodges a wide collection of painting, sculpture and Jewish folkloric art of the whole world, presents temporary special exhibitions, and carries out diverse educational projects and artistic investigation.

The Museum of Haifa (est. 1949) includes the Ancient Art museum that specializes in archaeological finds discovered in Israel and in the basin of the Mediterranean; the Modern Art museum (est. 1951), with exhibitions of art of the whole world (from the middle of the XVIIIth century up to the present); and the Museum of Music and Ethnography, which exhibits musical instruments of all the epochs and suits of diverse communities of the diaspora as well as of the Arab communities and drusas of the outskirts of Haifa. Under the guidance of this museum they are also the Museum of Prehistory, the Marine National museum and the renewed Museum Tikotin of Japanese Art.

The Museum Eretz Israel (est. 1953) in Ramat Aviv, a comprehensiva collection of archaeological, anthropological and historical finds of the region, it comprises pavilions on glass, ceramics, numismatics, folklore, copper, and others, in addition to a planetarium. The section "The man and his effort" presents demonstrations in alive of ancient methods of textile, gold work and pottery, mill of grains and baked of bread. In the place there is also Tel Qasile, an excavation in which 12 different civilization layers have been dug up. Under the guidance of the same museum they are also the Museum of the History of Tel Aviv - Yafo and the Lounge of the Independence, place where the State of Israel was proclaimed in 1948, both placed in the center of Tel Aviv.

The Institute L.A. Mayer of Islamic art (est. 1974) in Jerusalem lodges extensive permanent exhibitions of pottery, textiles, jewels, ceremonial and related objects, covering thousand years of Islamic art, from Spain to the India, and mounts temporary exhibitions on specific topics.

Beit Hatefutzot (The Museum of the Diaspora, est. 1978), located in the campus of the University of Tel Aviv, uses modern skills and audio-visual presentations to plan the history of the Jewish communities of the diaspora throughout the years and across the world. In this museum without original objects, the exhibitions are arranged by topic and every apartment is provided with a study area. They are carried out regularly, also, temporary exhibitions on Jewish topics, a cronósfera that presents an audio-visual review of the Jewish history, a wide scale of educational and cultural programs and itinerant exhibitions.

The Museum Toasts of David de la Historia de Jerusalem (est. 1988) is located in the complex of the Citadel, an important historical and archaeological place that contains finds of the period of the First Temple (90-586 AEC), you depart from a tower and from the wall of the city of the period hasmoneo (Ist century AEC) and the base of an enormous tower contruida for king Herodes (37-4 AEC). The museum covers 4.000 years of the history of Jerusalem, from his beginning like city canaanea, up to the modern times. The exhibitions are divided in accordance with periods, with a 'temporary line' in every room that shows the principal events, as well as presentations by means of maps, videotapes, holograms, drawings and models. Every so much temporary exhibitions appear on related topics.

Beit Hapalmaj (est. 2000) in Ramat Aviv, there is dedicated to the Palmaj, the force of shock of the prestate clandestine defensive organization Haganá, which later was integrated to the Forces of Defense of Israel. Beit Hapalmaj produces homage to the contribution of the Palmaj in the creation of the State and transmits his legendary values.

The Museum Yad Vashem in Jerusalem is dedicated to perpetuating the memory of six million Jews who perished in the Holocaust. It includes an art gallery, the Lounge of the Names, the Avenue of the Just Gentiles, a file, the central memory room with the names of the fields of extermination in the apartment, the Pavilion in Memory of the Children and the Vale of the Exterminated Communities.

Archaeology

Statue of Dionysius - Beit Shean The archaeological investigation in the Earth of Israel began in the middle of the XIXth century, when scholars in the Bible examined the area in search of remnants of places mentioned in the Ancient one and the New Testament. Towards ends of the XIXth century, but principally from the beginning of the XXth century, many hillocks (in Arab tel, a hillock consisted of remains of ancient establishments) were excavated, and the bases sat down for a scientific archaeological investigation. The archaeological activities expanded during the period of the British Order (1917-1948) and they have increased to a great extent from the establishment of the State of Israel.

The experience accumulated during the excavations has determined the investigation methods estratigráfica, accompanied by a meticulous study of the development (typology) of the forms of the vessels of ceramics and other gadgetry, thanks to which it is possible to determine the date of the strata and the archaeological remnants. In the last years, the archaeological investigation has been extended including aspects less known about the ancient material, such cultures like nutrition, illnesses, economy and commerce. These achievements of the modern archaeological investigation are applied in dozens of places that are excavated year by year.

The archaeology in Israel implies the systematical investigation of all the remnants of the past of the country - from the prehistory up to the end of the Ottoman domain. The plenty of material remains is an evidence of the numerous civilizations that have left his trace in this Earth. The singular geographical features influenced to the most ancient cultures: tens thousands of years behind the Earth was serving like a terrestrial bridge on which bands of hunters were crossing from Africa Europe. His camps and housings have been found along the Vale of the Jordan and in the caves of the mounts of Carmel and the Galilee. In Biblical times, the Earth was the bridge between the prosperous civilizations of the Fertile Half moon: Mesopotamia (today, Iraq) and Egypt. From his occupation for Alejandro Magno, Israel has served like geographical and cultural bond between east and Occident.

The archaeological investigation in Israel attributes a lot of importance to the fact of which the country is the hearth of the spiritual legacy of three big monotheistic religions. Over everything it reveals clearly the historical relation between the Jewish people, the Bible and the Earth of Israel, putting to the overdraft the remnants of the cultural legacy of the Jewish people in his homeland. These visible, buried remains, they constitute the physical bond between the past, the present and the future of the Jewish people in his country. This continuous and intact chain of history can be observed in diverse places along the country: in the Biblical cities of Jatzor, Meguido, Guézer, Shomrón, Beer Sheva and They Give; in the cities of the period of the Second Temple - Tiberíades, Séforis (Tzipori), gamala - and the fortitude of Farmhouse and the Herodión, where the Jews fought for the freedom; in the desert of Judea close to the Dead Sea, where there were discovered the remains of the spiritual center esenio and the Rolls of the Dead Sea were, including the most ancient copies of books of the Ancient Testament. Of the same period, there were put to the overdraft places related to Jesus's life - Cafarnaum and Tabgha - where there are also ruins of churches of the Byzantine period.

There have been put to the overdraft the places of the big Roman and Byzantine cities of Cesarean section, Beit Sheán and Banias, as the cities of Néguev de Avdat, Jalutza and Mamshit, which prospered in his epoch. Of the Moslem period, there are ruins of the city of Ramle and of the palace of Khirbet to the-Mafjar (Palace of Hisham) in Jericho. Remains of the Crossed period include many fortitude and cities - Acre, Cesarean section, Belvoir and Qalat Nimrod.

Jerusalem, the capital of Israel, has been the focus of a wide archaeological activity and it has been remaining developing of 5.000 years of history: in David's City, the walls of the Canaanian city and building ruins of the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel, including sophisticated underground systems for the water transport; of the period of the Second Temple, the remains of state buildings along the walls of containment of the Mount of the Temple that exists up to today, the ruins of the splendid residences of the High City in the current Jewish Quarter of the Old City, the ruins of what stayed in the place later that the Romans were destroying Jerusalem in the year 70 EC and hundreds of graves opened in the rock, someone richly decorated, that give testimony of the prosperity of the destroyed city; many churches and religious buildings of the Byzantine period, being the most famous of them the Church of the Holy Tomb; of the period of the Moslem domain, the mosques in the Mount of the Temple and a governmental center, remains of which they have been excavated to the south of Monte del Templo; of the crossed period, walls of the city, churches and roofed markets; of the periods Mameluke and Ottoman minarets that adorn the horizon of the Old City. The walls of the Old City and the citadel along with the Door of Yafo were constructed during the reign of the Ottoman sultan Suleimán Magnificent.

In Israel they have recognized and protected by law approximately 20.000 ancient places. Every year, tens places of all the historical periods of the country are excavated. Are the licenses to excavate granted to expeditions - of Israel and of the exterior - by the Authority of Antig? ages of Israel, which is the manager of the preservation of the antig? ages of the country. The Law of Antig? ages of Israel it is required that any place chosen for the construction should be examined to be sure that there are no archaeological remnants, and an excavation should be carried out in case of seeming necessary. The State has also the right to preserve public interest finds; some of the most important of them are exhibited in the Museum Israel in Jerusalem. The museum lodges also the Sanctum of the Book, in which the Rolls of the Dead Sea survive, and some of them are in view of the public. Big effort, along with resources, is invested in the preservation and their restoration of ancient places and tens, of all the periods of the history, they have been put at the disposal of the public.

Dance

In the community and religious life of the Jewish people from the Biblical times, the dance has been considered to be an expression of happiness or of sorrow, and today it is an integral part of the religious, national, community and familiar celebrations. The contemporary dance in the country has developed in two directions: expansion of the genre of the folkloric dance that accompanied the first settlers in the reconstruction of his ancient homeland and the establishment of an artistic dance, coming to scenic productions created by professional choreographers. 

The dance as artistic form was introduced in the country in the year 1920 by teachers and lover of the dance newly arrived persons of the cultural centers of Europe. After the establishment of the state, a high professional level was developing for several groups, each one based on a different orientation and style. Nowadays seven important professional companies of dance, mostly with head office in Tel Aviv, present a varied repertoire throughout the country and in the exterior.

The Israeli Ballet arose from a study of classic dance established by his artistic directors Berta Yampolsky and Hillel Markman. The only professional company of classic ballet of the country, he interprets works created by Yampolsky as well as ballets of Balanchine and other international choreographers.

The Theater of Dance Inbal, the most ancient professional company of Israel, was established by his artistic director and principal choreographer Sara Levi-Tanai, and now there is led for whom out his star, Margalit Oved. His repertoire, which in general turns on Biblical topics, is based to a great extent on material of movement suggested by the traditions of dance, music and poetry of the yemenitas and other oriental Jewish communities. Throughout the years, Inbal has acted numerous times in the exterior.

The Company of Dance Batsheva, founded (1964) for baroness Batsheva de Rothschild and Martha Graham, has been acclaimed by the criticism in the whole world. The company is provided with a singular repertoire that includes daring dances which choreography is a work of his artistic director, Ohad Naharín, and stimulates the artistic collaborations to extend the limits of the dance. The Set Batsheva, training frame for the ballet dancers beginners of the Batsheva, is gaining reputation for itself.

The Company of Dance Bat Dor, also founded by baroness Batsheva de Rothschild with Jeanette Ordman as his artistic director, is formed by about 20 ballet dancers and interprets the works of some of the best choreographers of the world, including to Domy Reiter-Soffer born in Israel. They belong to the company a dance school in Tel Aviv and other one in Beer Sheva.

The Company of Contemporary Dance Kibutziana, with head office in the kibbutz Gaatón in the north of the Galilee, is formed by ballet dancers of different kibutzim. Under the guidance of his founder, Yehudit Arnón, this set extensively acclaimed Rummy Beer interprets a repertoire that includes works of local and international choreographers, including those of the member of kibbutz. 

Kol-Dmamá (Sound - Silence), a singular company that it includes deaf and auditory ballet dancers, was founded (1978) by Moshé Efrati using a system to transmit ballet dancer vibrations to ballet dancer. With original repertoire created by Efrati, the company has acquired international reputation and has offered a significant contribution to the rehabilitation of the deaf persons.

Dizziness is a very successful group of modern dance that was founded in 1992 by two ballerinas: Noa Wertheim and Adí Shaal. It has realized tours all over the world and it has already obtained international distinctions for his work. Original Wertheim choreographies are a big part of his repertoire, as well as innovative dance projects with other artists. The School of Dance Dizziness in Jerusalem, founded in 1997, offers classes for professionals and fans in classic ballet, modern dance and improvisation.

The stage of modern dance of the country is reinforced also by a series of smaller sets, mostly dependent on the capacity of an artist, like the dance theater Tiff Schenfeld, the Company of Dance Yaron Margolin, the duo of dance Liat Dror and Nir Ben-Gal, the group of theater of dance Tmu-Na and Tnuatrón.

From his opening in 1989, the Center of Dance and Theater Suzanne Dellal in recently renewed quarter of Nevé Tzedek in Tel Aviv has turned into the central point of the activities of dance of the country. Also in Tel Aviv, the Israeli Library of Dance and the Israeli File of Dance, in addition to serving like centers of study and investigation, they publish books on dance and the Yearbook of Israeli Dance. Training and education Rubin de Música is granted to new ballet dancers in the Academy and He dances in Jerusalem and Tel Aviv, the studies Bat Dor in Tel Aviv and Beer Sheva, the school Talma Yellin in Tel Aviv and several other schools and workshops of dance in the whole country.

The contributions of Israel in the field of the education of the movement include the methods of Moshé Feldenkrais, which are taught in the whole world, and the system of note of the movement Eshkol-Wachman, one of the three the most well-known systems of record of dance and movement in writing.

The Israeli folkloric dance arose like an amalgam of forms of Jewish and not Jewish folkloric dances of many places of the world. While in other countries the folkloric dances are stimulated to preserve ancient rural traditions, in Israel it is a form of art in constant development that has evolved from the 40s, based on historical and modern sources as well as on Biblical associations and contemporary styles of dance. 

The first pioneers, who replaced the urban life of the Eastern Europe by rural other one in a collective establishment, brought with it his native dances, which were adapted to his new environment. Between them, a Rumanian dance, the hour, represented the new life that was constructed in the Earth of Israel: his form of closed circle was giving an equality status to all the participants; the simple movements were allowing all the general participation, and the connected arms were symbolizing the new ideology. Nowadays it keeps on being the dance representative of Israel, interpreted by persons of all the ages, and sometimes that go from the street dances in the Day of the Independence up to social meetings of any type.

The vuelco in the development of the local folkloric dance happened in the first festival of folkloric dance realized in the kibbutz Dahlia in 1944. It was continued by a general enthusiasm for the dance, which brought with it the creation of a many-sided genre of folkloric dance characterized by a combination of styles and sources. There are incorporated in him motives of the Jewish diaspora and local traditions, including the Arab debka, a dance of men joined in tier who beat with his feet, as well as elements of dance that go from the North American jazz and the Latin-American rhythms up to the typical rhythms of many Mediterranean countries.

The folkloric dances of the country, which mostly are based on Israeli popular songs, comprise a big variety of steps and forms, juxtaposed with exhuberante movement, expressing the vitality of a young country with an ancient tradition. The folkloric dance is evident both by means of the individual participation and for presentations in stage. The public enthusiasm for the folkloric dances has led to the emergence of professional drivers of dances and to thousands of persons who take part regularly in dancing activities like a form of recreation. Many localities offer weekly folkloric dances and some of them also sponsor sets.

Along with the Israeli folkloric dance, and influencing it, there are the traditional dances of the different ethnic groups that reflect both the 'crucible of diasporas' and the pluralista nature of the Israeli society. These dances are preserved by several groups specializing in dances of Yemen, Kurdistan, Noráfrica, India, Georgia, Bukhara and Ethiopia and by sets that interpret Arab dances, drusas and Circassian.

The sets of folkloric dances act in most of the local and national celebrations and act in local and international festivals. From 1988, it is realized annually in Carmiel, a festival of folkloric dances of three days.

Movies

The movies in Israel has had an important development from his beginning in the 50s. While the first movies produced and directed by Israelis, as "The Hill 24 does not answer" and "There Were ten", they were tending, as the literature, to register in the heroic boss of that period, some recent movies are deeply established in the Israeli experience, like the survivors of the Holoausto and his children ("The Summer of Avia" of Whore Almagor and his continuation, "In the shade of The Domen") and the works of new immigrants ("Shjur" directed by Jana Azoulai and Shmuel Hasfari, "Coffee with lemon", directed by Leonid Gorivets). Others reflect a more predominant tendency towards the Israeli current reality, be already treating the topic of the confrontation Arab - Israeli (the movie of Uri Barabash "Behind the Grills") or placed in the context of a society universalista, slightly mentally ill and hedonistic ("A Song of Siren", "La Vida as Agfa", "Histories of Tel Aviv").

The cinematographic exports grow annually, as more Israeli movies are successful in the exterior and more foreign productions and joint productions are filmed in the country. The Israeli Center of Movies, a division of the Department of Industry and Commerce, promotes the filming in Israel both of local and foreign producers, and provides services, from professional contacts up to financial incentives.

The Film library of Jerusalem consists of a file of thousands of movies, a library of consultation, rooms of projection and exhibition. It offers regular projections, in general


Source: MFA - Foreign Office of Israel








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