Historical events of the Jewish People
History and Historical Events of the Jewish People
Remember the ancient times; consider the years from generation to generation...
The place of birth of the Jewish people is the Earth of Israel (Eretz Israel). There developed a considerable part of the long history of the nation, of which the first thousand years are registered in the Bible; there formed his cultural, religious and national identity; and there, his physical presence has been supported throughout the centuries, inclusive after the majority was sent by the force to the exile. During the long years of dispersion, the Jewish people never cut nor forgot his bond with the Earth. With the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Jewish, lost independence two thousand years earlier, it was recovered.
The archaeology in Israel has offered a valuable bond between the present and the past of the country, there having been discovered thousands of years of history in about 3.500 places. Many finds confirm the long connection of the Jewish people with the Earth of Israel, including the Salomón stables in Meguido (Vale of Jezreel), the houses of the Israelite period in David's City (Jerusalem), ritual baths in Farmhouse, numerous synagogs and the Rolls of the Dead Sea, which contain the most ancient existing copy of Isaías's Book in a still legible Hebrew writing. The excavations have revealed also traces of other civilizations that ejaron his trace in the Earth throughout the centuries. All the finds are registered, and the historical places are preserved and indicated carefully, for the students and the visitors.
XVIITH - VITH CENTURIES. AEC WAS BIBLICAL
AEC - Before the Common Age
circa XVIIth century. The Patriarchs: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob - patriarchs of the Jewish people and bearers of the belief in the only God - settle in the Earth of Israel.
The famine forces the Israelites to emigrate to Egypt.
circa XIIIth century. Exodus of Egypt: Cradle extracts the Israelites of Egypt, continued for 40 years of strolling for the desert.
The Torá, including Ten Orders, is received in the Mount Sinai.
XIIIth - XIIth centuries. The Israelites settle in the Earth of Israel.
circa 1020 Establishment of the Jewish monarchy Saúl, the first king.
circa 1000 Jerusalem there is turned capital of David's kingdom.
circa 90 The First Temple, national and spiritual center of the Jewish people, is constructed in Jerusalem by king Salomón.
circa 930 The kingdom splits into two: Judea and Israel
722 - 720 Israel is conquered by the Assyrians; 10 exiled tribes (Ten Lost Tribes)
586 Judea is conquered by Babylonia. Jerusalem and the First Temple are destroyed, most of the Jews are exiled to Babylonia.
536-142 PERSIAN PERIOD AND HELENISTICO
538-50 many Jews return of Babylonia; the Temple is reconstructed.
332 the Earth is conquered by Alejandro Magno; domain helenístico.
166-10 rebellion Macabea (Hasmonea) against the restrictions in practice of the Judaism and the desecration of the Temple
142-129 Jewish autonomy under the dynasty hasmonea.
129-63 Jewish independence under the monarchy hasmonea.
63 AEC Jerusalem it is captured by the Roman general Pompeyo.
63 AEC-313 EC ROMAN DOMAIN
(EC - Was Common)
63 AEC-313 EC Herodes, vassal Roman king, governs the Earth of Israel;
The Temple in Jerusalem is refaccionado
circa 20-33 Department of Jesus de Nazaret
66 Jewish rebellion against Rome
70 destruction of Jerusalem and of the Second Temple.
73 last resistance of the Jews in Farmhouse.
132-135 raising of Bar Cojbá against Rome.
circa 210 completes the Codification of the Jewish Oral Law (Mishná).
313-636 BYZANTINE DOMAIN
circa 390 Closes of the comment of the Mishná (Talmud of Jerusalem).
614 Persian invasion
636-1099 ARAB DOMAIN
691 In the place of the First one and Segundo Templo in Jerusalem the caliph Abd the-Malik constructs the Dome of the Rock
1099-1291 CROSSED DOMAIN
(Latin kingdom of Jerusalem)
1291-016 DOMAIN MAMELUKE
017-1917 OTTOMAN DOMAIN
064 publication of the Code of the Jewish Law (Shulján Aruj).
180 construction of the first quarter out of the Jerusalem walls.
1882-1903 the first Aliá (immigration in big scale), principally of Russia
1897 the First World Zionist Congress is summoned by Teodoro Herzl in Basel, Switzerland; the World Zionist Organization is founded.
1904-14 the second Aliá, principally of Russia and Poland.
1909 the first kibbutz, Degania, and the first modern Jewish city, Tel Aviv, are founded.
1917 400 years of Ottoman domain conclude with the British conquest;
The British Secretary of State Balfour promises the support for the establishment of a "Jewish national hearth in Palestine".
1918-48 BRITISH DOMAIN
1919-23 third Aliá, principally of Russia
1920 there are founded the Histadrut (General Confederacy of Workpeople) and the Haganá (organization of Jewish defense).
The Jewish community establishes the National Advice (Vaad Leumí) for the direction of his matters.
1921 there is founded Nahalal, the first moshav.
1922 Great Britain receives the Order on Palestine (Earth of Israel) of the League of the Nations; Transjordania is established on the fourth three parts of the territory, staying only one quarter for the Jewish national hearth.
The Jewish Agency is established, so that it represents the Jewish community opposite to the authorities of the Order.
1924 the Tejnión is founded - Israeli Institute of Technology, in Haifa.
1924-32 the fourth Aliá, principally of Poland.
1925 opens his doors the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in the Mount Scopus.
1929 the Jews of Hebrón are massacred by Arab militants.
1931 there is founded the Etzel, clandestine Jewish organization.
1933-39 fifth Aliá, principally of Germany.
1936-39 politically active Arabs provoke anti-Jewish disturbances.
1939 the British White Book limits the Jewish immigration.
1939-45 the second World war: Holocaust in Europe.
1941 there forms the Leji, clandestine movement; the Palmaj is created, it forces of shock of the Haganá.
1944 there forms the Jewish Brigade as part of the British forces.
1947 the UNO proposes the establishment of the Arab state and another Jew in the Earth.
BEEN 1948 OF ISRAEL
1948 concludes the British Order (May 14)
The State of Israel is proclaimed (May 14).
Israel is invaded by five Arab states (May 0).
War of Independence (May, 1948 - July, 1949).
There are established the Forces of Defense of Israel (FDI).
1949 armistice agreements are signed with Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon.
Jerusalem is divided under Israeli and Jordanian domain.
Chosen the first Knéset (parliament).
Israel is admitted into the United Nations like the 59th one. member.
1948-52 massive immigration of Europe and the Arab countries.
1956 campaign of the Sinai
1962 Adolf Eichmann is enjuiciado and executed in Israel on the part that him fitted in the Holocaust.
Finished 1964 the National Aqueduct, which transports water from the north to the semi - arid south.
1967 war of Six Days; reunified Jerusalem.
1968-70 war of Wear of Egypt against Israel
1973 war of Yom Kipur
1975 Israel happens to be an associate member of the European Economic Community.
1977 the Likud forms government after the elections to the Knéset; end of 30 years of Labour government.
Visit of the Egyptian president Sadat to Jerusalem.
1978 agreements of Camp David that constitute a frame for the peace comprehensiva in the Middle East and a proposal of car I govern Palestinian.
1979 signs the Treaty of Peace Israelo-Egipcio.
The prime minister Menajem Beguin and the president Anwar Sadat are rewarded by the Nobel Prize of the Peace.
1981 the Israeli Air Force destroys the Iraqi nuclear reactor just before beginning to be operative.
1982 finishes the Israeli retreat in three stages of the Sinai;
The Operation Peace for the Galilee removes the terrorists of the PLO (Organization for the Liberation of Palestine) of the Lebanon.
1984 there forms a government of National Unit (Likud and Labour Movement).
Operation Cradle, immigration of the Jews of Ethiopia.
1985 signs an Agreement of Free trade with the United States.
1987 wide violence (intifada) begins in the territories administered by Israel.
1988 the Likud rises to power after the elections.
1989 an initiative of peace of four points is proposed by Israel.
There begins the massive immigration of Jews of the Ex-Unión.
1991 Israel is attacked by Iraqi missiles SCUD during the War of the Persian Gulf.
The Conference of Peace meets for the Middle East in Madrid;
Operation Salomón, air transport of Jews of Ethiopia.
1992 diplomatic relations are established with China and India.
A government headed by Itzjak Rabín rises to power, of the Labour party.
1993 declaration of Beginning on the temporary self-government agreements they are signed by Israel and the PLO, like representative of the Palestinian people.
1994 implementation of the Palestinian self-government in the Stripe of Gaza and Jericho
Diplomatic relations with the Holy See.
There are opened offices of interests of Morocco and Tunisia.
The Treaty of Peace is signed between Israel and Jordan.
Rabín, Peres and Arafat are rewarded by the Nobel Prize of the Peace.
1995 implements the enlargement of the Palestinian self-government in the Western Margin and the Stripe of Gaza; the Palestinian Advice is chosen.
The prime minister Itzjak Rabín is murdered in an assembly by the peace.
Shimón Peres happens to be a prime minister.
1996 climbed of the fundamentalist Arab terrorism against Israel.
Operation Grape of the Anger, countermeasure for terrorist Jizbalá attacks against the north of Israel.
Offices of commercial representation are established in Oman and Qatar.
The Likud forms government after the elections to the Knéset.
Benjamín Netaniahu assumes the Prime minister charge.
There is opened the office of commercial representation of Oman in Tel Aviv.
1997 Israel and the AP sign the Protocol of Hebrón.
Noam Nadav 1998 Israel celebrates the Golden jubilee
Israel and the PLO sign the Memorandum of the river Wye to facilitate the implementation of the Temporary Agreement.
1999 Ehud Barak (leftist party An Israel) is an elect prime minister; it forms a coalition government.
Israel and the PLO sign the Memorandum of Sharem the-Sheikh.
2000 visits of the Pope Juan Pablo II
Israel moves back from the safety area in the South of the Lebanon.
Israel is admitted into the group of Western Europe of the UNO and into other groups.
A new violence wave explodes.
The prime minister Barak resigns.
2001 Ariel Sharon (Likud) is an elect prime minister; it forms a government of unit of wide base.
There is published the report of the Commission of Sharm - The Sheikh to determine the events (Formless Mitchell).
A Plan of Work is proposed for the Implementation of the Safety Israelo-Palestina ((Plan of cessation of fire Tenet)).
Rejavam Zeevy, the minister of Tourism, is murdered by Palestinian terrorists.
2002 Israel throws the "Operation Wall of Defense" in answer to the massive Palestinian terrorist attacks.
The prime minister Sharón disvelve the Knéset, calling to new elections that will be realized on January 28, 2003.
Source: MFA - Foreign Office of Israel