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Foreign domain
The mastery of the Earth of Israel


Under foreign domain

Towards ends of the IVth century, after the adoption of the Christianity for the emperor Constantino (313) and of the foundation of the Byzantine Empire, the Earth of Israel went on to be a predominantly Christian country. 

They constructed themselves churches in the Christian Holy Places in Jerusalem, Bethlehem and the Galilee, and monasteries were established in many places of the country. The Jews were forbidden of his previous relative autonomy, as well as of the right to exercise public positions, and the entry to Jerusalem was prohibited them except one day to the year (Tishá BeAv) to commemorate the destruction of the Temple.

The Persian invasion of 614 was supported by the Jews, who were inspired by Messianic liberation hopes. In gratitude for his help, the administration of Jerusalem was granted them. This interlude, nevertheless, lasted only approximately three years. Later, the Byzantine army entered again the city (629) and again he expelled his Jewish population.

Arab domain
(636-1099)

The Arab conquest of the Earth happened four years after the death of Mahoma (632) and lasted more than four centuries, with caliphs who governed at first from Damascus and later from Baghdad and Egypt. To the beginning of the Moslem diet the Jewish establishment was resumed in Jerusalem and the used not Muslims status was granted to the Jewish community under protection, which was safeguarding his lives, property and freedom of cult in exchange for the payment of a poll tax special and taxes on the grounds. 

Nevertheless, later restrictions against not Muslims (717) affected the public conduct of the Jews, as well as his religious observances and legal status. The imposition of severe taxes forced many people to move to the agricultural lands of the rural areas to the cities, where his situation improved slightly, while the increase of the social and economic discrimination forced others to leave the country. At the end of the XIth century the Jewish community in the Earth had diminished greatly and had lost something of his organizational and religious cohesion.

The Crossed ones
(1099-1291)

During the following 200 years, the country was dominated by the crossed ones, who, answering to called of pope Urbano II, came from Europe to recover the Holy Land of hands of the unbelievers. In July, 1099, after a siege of five weeks, the gentlemen of the First Crusade and his rough army captured Jerusalem massacring most of not Christian inhabitants of the city. Entrenched in his synagogs, the Jews defended his quarter, without another result to be burned alive or to sold like slaves. During the following decades, the crossed ones extended his domain over the rest of the country, partly by means of agreements and agreements, but in most cases by means of bloody military conquests. The Latin Kingdom of the crossed ones constituted a conquering minority confined principally in cities and fortified castles. 

Once the crossed ones opened the transport routes from Europe, the peregrination to the Holy Land happened to be popular and, concurrentemente, increasing Jews quantities returned to his homeland. Documents of this period indicate that 300 rabbis of France and England came in only one group, settling some in Acre (Acco) and others in Jerusalem.

After the defeat of the crossed ones by a Moslem army directed by Saladino (1187), the Jews received again a certain measurement of freedom, including the right to settle in Jerusalem. Although crossed possibly they recovered the control on most of the country after the death of Saladino (1193), his presence limited itself to a network of fortified castles. The crossed domination of the Earth concluded after a final defeat (1291) to hands of the Mamelukes, a Moslem military caste that had come to the power in Egypt.

Domain Mameluke
(1291-016)

Under the diet Mameluke, the Earth happened to be a backward province governed from Damascus. Acre, Jaffa and other ports were destroyed by fear of the arrival of new crusades and the international trade was interrupted. Towards ends of the Middle Age, the urban centers of the country were virtually in ruins, most of Jerusalem was left and the small Jewish community was overwhelmed by the poverty. The period of the decline mameluca turned out to be darkened by political and economic disorders, plagues, invasions of lobsters and devastating earthquakes.

Ottoman domain
(017-1917)

After the Ottoman conquest in 017, the Earth was divided in four districts, it annexed administratively to the province of Damascus and it governed from Istanbul. To the beginning of the Ottoman age, approximately 1.000 Jewish families were living in the country, mostly in Jerusalem, Nablus (Shjem), Hebrón, Gaza, Safed (Tzfat) and the villages of the Galilee. The community was integrated by progeny of the Jews who never left the Earth, as well as by immigrants of Noráfrica and Europe.

A tidy government, up to the death (066) of the sultan Suleimán Magnificent it brought improvements and stimulated the Jewish immigration. Some newly arrived persons settled in Jerusalem, but the majority spoke to Safed where, in the middle of the XVIth century, the Jewish population had grown to about 10.000 persons and the city had turned into a flourishing textile center, as well as focus of an intense intellectual activity. 

During this period, the study of the Cabalá (Jewish mysticism) bloomed and the clarifications of the Jewish law of the epoch, as it was codified in Shulján Aruj, they spread for the whole Jewish diaspora from the academies of study of Safed.

Due to the gradual decline in the quality of the Turkish diet, the country was falling down in the state of big negligence. Towards ends of the XVIIIth century, big part of the ground had been acquired by landowners absentees and rented to impoverished peasants. The taxes collection was both defective and capricious. The big forests of the Galilee and of Monte Carmel remained naked of trees; marshes and deserts spread on the agricultural land.

The XIXth century saw to the medieval delay to yield gradually to the first progress signs, with several western potency maneuvering to obtain some position, often by means of missionary activities. British, American and French students initiated studies of Biblical archaeology; Great Britain, France, Russia, Austria and the United States opened consulates in Jerusalem. Steamships lines began doing regular trips towards and from Europe, installed postal and telegraphic connections to him; there was constructed the first way that Jerusalem was connecting with Jaffa. The renaissance of the Earth as intersection for the commerce of three continents turned out to be accelerated by the opening of the Suez Canal.

Consistently, the conditions of the Jews of the country improved slowly, and his number increased substantially. About middle of century, the overcrowding conditions inside the walled city of Jerusalem he led the Jews to constructing the first Jewish quarter out of the walls (180) and, during the following twenty-five years there joined other seven, which form the nucleus of the New town. About 1870 Jerusalem was already provided with a Jewish majority. Earths for the agriculture had been acquired to everything long of the country, new rural establishments had been established, and the Hebrew language, during long time restricted to the liturgy and the literature, it was rereal. The stage had been prepared for the beginning of the Zionist movement.

Zionism, the national liberation movement of the Jewish people, derives his name of the word "Zion", synonymous traditionally from Jerusalem and the Earth of Israel. The idea of the Zionism - the redemption of the Jewish people in his ancestral homeland - is established in the continuous and deep relation with the Earth of Israel that has been an inherent part of the Jewish existence in the diaspora throughout the centuries.

The political Zionism arose like answer to the continued oppression and pursuit of Jews in the Eastern Europe and to the increasing disappointment of the formal emancipation in the Western Europe, which neither put term to the discrimination it did not even lead to the integration of the Jews in his local societies. It found formal expression in the establishment of the Zionist Organization (1897), in the first Zionist Congress summoned by Teodoro Herzl in Basel, Switzerland. The program of the Zionist movement was containing so much ideological elements as practical, destined to promote the comeback of the Jews to the Earth; facilitating the social, cultural, economic and political resurgence of the Jewish national life; and achieving a hearth for the Jewish people in his historical homeland, internationally recognized and legally assured, in that the Jews would be free of pursuits and would be capable of developing their own lives and identity.

Inspired by the Zionist ideology, two big Jewish influjosde of the Eastern Europe came to the country at the end of the XIXth century and the beginning of the XXth century. Decisive to restore his homeland working the ground, these pioneers redeemed the arid fields of centuries of abandonment, constructed new establishments and there sat the bases of what later would be a flourishing agricultural economy.

The newly arrived persons confronted extremely difficult conditions: the attitude of the Ottoman administration was hostile and oppressive; the communications and the transport were rudimentary and insecure; the marshes were infected by the mortal malaria; and the soil in itself was suffering for centuries of abandonment and negligence. The grounds acquisition was restricted and the construction was prohibited without a special permission, which it was possible to obtain only in Istanbul. Although these difficulties disturbed the development of the country, they did not interrupt it. After the First World war (1914) exploded the Jewish population in the Earth was reaching 85.000 persons compared with the 5.000 who were living in the country at the beginning of 000.

In December, 1917, the British forces under the control of general Allenby entered Jerusalem, finishing four centuries of Ottoman domain. The Jewish Legion, with three battalions, which it was counting with thousands of Jewish volunteers, was then an integral unit of the British army.

The general Briton Allenby in Jerusalem, 1917 
British domain
(1918-1948)

In July, 1922, the League of the Nations entrusted to Great Britain the Order on Palestine (the name with which one knew then to the country). Recognizing "the historical connection of the Jewish people with Palestine", Great Britain was named to facilitate the establishment of a Jewish national hearth in Palestine - Eretz Israel (Earth of Israel). Two months later, in September, 1922, the Council of the League of the Nations and Great Britain they solved that the dispositions for the establishment of a Jewish national hearth would not govern in the area to the east of the Rio Jordan, which was constituting the fourth three parts of the territory included in the order and possibly it turned into the Kingdom Hashemita of Jordan.

Immigration

Motivated by the Zionism and stimulated by the British "friendliness" "towards the Zionist Jewish aspirations", as the Secretary of State Lord Balfour (1917) will report, immigrants' successive waves came between 1919 and 1939, each of which contributed in different aspects to the Jewish community in development. Approximately 35.000 that came between 1919 and 1923, principally from Russia, had a big influence on the character and organization of the community in the future years. These pioneers sat the bases of a comprehensiva social and economic infrastructure, developed the agriculture, established singular forms of community rural establishments - the kibbutz and the moshav - and provided the labor force for the housing construction and ways. 

The next inflow of about 0.000 persons, which came principally from Poland between 1924 and 1932, contributed to the development and enrichment of the urban life. These immigrants settled principally in Tel Aviv, Haifa and Jerusalem, where they established small commerce, companies of construction and the light industry. The last unmigratory wave before the Second World war, which understood nearly 165.000 persons, took place in the 30s, immediately after Hitler's coming into power and, mostly originated from Germany. 

The newly arrived persons, many of which were professional and academic, they constituted the first inflow in big scale of the Western and Central Europe. His education, capacities and experience raised the levels in the commerce, improved the urban and rural well-being and extended the cultural life of the community.

Administration

The authorities of the British Order Jewish woman and Arab granted to the local communities the right to handle its own internal matters. Making use of thi7 the Assembly affirmative vote of the recommendations of the commission for the division of the Earth in two states, the Jewish one and another Arab. The Jewish community accepted the plan; the Arabs pushed it back.

Immediately after the voting of the UNO, local Arab militants helped principally by irregular volunteers of the Arab countries, threw violent attacks against the Jewish community in an effort to frustrate the resolution of the division and to prevent the establishment of the Jewish state. After having suffered a series of reverses, the Jewish organizations of defense repelled most of the attacks, taking possession of the whole area that had been assigned to the Jewish state.

On May 14, 1948, on having concluded the British Order, the Jewish population in the country was coming to about 650.000 persons who were forming a community organized with well developed political, social and economic institutions - de facto, a nation in the whole sense of the word, and the state that was lacking only name.


Source: MFA - Foreign Office of Israel








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