The Second Big Jewish Temple
The Second Big Jewish Temple
Those who returned of the exile constructing the Second Temple,
The Comeback to Síon:
Periods Persian and Helenístico
Immediately after a decree of the Persian king Ciro, conqueror of the empire of Babylonia, (538 AEC), approximately 50.000 Jews tackled the First Comeback to the Earth of Israel, directed by Zorobabel, descendant from David's House. Less than one century later, the Second Comeback the Scribe was directed by Esdrás. During the following four centuries, the Jews knew diverse autonomy grades under the Persian domain (538-333 AEC) and later the helenístico-ptolomeo and seléucida - (333-63 AEC).
The repatriation of the Jews under inspired Esdrás leadership, the construction of the Second Temple in the place of the First one, the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem and the establishment of Knéset Haguedolá (Big Assembly) like supreme religious and judicial entity of the Jewish people, they marked the beginning of the Second Jewish State (Period of the Second Temple). Inside the limits of the Persian empire (538-333 AEC), Judea was a nation which direction was entrusted to the Supreme Priest and to the Elders' Advice in Jerusalem.
As part of the ancient world conquered by Alejandro Magno (332 AEC) of Greece, the Earth was supported like a Jewish theocracy under the leaders seléucidas with head office in Syria. When the practice of the Judaism was prohibited the Jews and his Temple was desecrado like part of the effort to impose on the whole population the culture and the customs with orientation towards Greece, the Jews rebelled (166 AEC).
Directed in a beginning for Matatías, member of the priests' dynasty hasmoneos and later for his son, Judá the Macabeo, the Jews entered Jerusalem and purified the Temple (164 AEC), events that are commemorated annually during the Holiday of Janucá.
Immediately after other victories hasmoneos, the seléucidas (147 AEC) restored the political and religious autonomy of Judea, as it was called then the Earth of Israel and, with the fall of the kingdom seléucida (129 AEC), a finished independence was achieved. Under the dynasty hasmonea, that lasted about 80 year, the kingdom recovered not distant borders of those of the kingdom of Salomón, a political consolidation was obtained under Jewish domain and the Jewish life bloomed.
Under Roman domain
(63 AEC-313 EC)
When the Romans replaced the seléucidas like principal potency of the region, they granted to the king hasmoneo Hircano II, a limited authority dependent on the Roman governor in Damascus. The Jews were hostile to the new diet and the following years were witnesses of frequent insurrections. The last attempt of restoring the ancient glory of the dynasty hasmonea was realized by Matatías Antígono, whose defeat and death put term (40 AEC) to the diet hasmoneo, and the Earth happened to be the vassal state inside the Roman empire.
In the year 37 AEC, Herodes, son-in-law of king Hircano II, was designated by the Romans king of Judea. Holder of an almost unlimited autonomy in the internal matters of the country, happened to be one of the most powerful monarches of the oriental part of the Roman empire. Big admirer of the Greek-Roman culture, Herodes initiated a program of massive buildings that included the cities of Cesarean section and Sebastia and the fortitude of Herodión and Farmhouse. Also refaccionó the Temple turning it into one of the most magnificent buildings of his time. But, in spite of his multiple achievements, Herodes was not capable of gaining the confidence and the support of his Jewish subjects.
Ten years after the death of Herodes (4 AEC), Judea stayed under the direct Roman administration (6 EC). The increasing annoyance against the Roman suppression of the Jewish life drove to sporadic violences that 66 EC reached in a general riot in the year. The top Roman forces directed by Tito turned out to be finally victorious, destroying completely Jerusalem (70 EC) and defeating the last Jewish position in Farmhouse (73 EC).
Nearly 1.000 men, women and children who survived the Jerusalem fall occupied and fortified the complex of the palace of Herodes in Farmhouse, located in the summit of a mount close to the Dead Sea, where for three years they resisted repeated Roman attempts to evict them. When the Romans finally climbed Farmhouse and popped in inside his walls, they discovered that the defenders and his families had preferred to give themselves death with their own hands to be submitted to the slavery.
The entire destruction of Jerusalem and of the Second Temple was catastrophic for the Jewish people. In accordance with the Jewish historian of the epoch Flavio Josefo, hundreds of thousands of Jews perished in the siege to Jerusalem and in different parts of the country, and many thousands were sold like slaves.
A last brief sovereignty period continued to the riot of Shimón Bar Kojbá (132), during which Judea and Jerusalem recovered. Nevertheless, given the enormous power of the Romans, the result was inevitable. At the end of three years, in accordance with the Roman custom, Jerusalem was "plow with an oxen team of oxen"; Judea was called Palaestina, and Jerusalem, Aelia Capitolina.
Although the Temple was destroyed and Jerusalem burned up to the foundations, the Jews and the Judaism survived his meeting with Rome. The supreme judicial and legislative entity, the Sanhedrín (successor of Knéset Haguedolá), was re-constituted in Yavne (70 EC) and later in Tiberíades. Without the frame unifier of the state and of the Temple, the small Jewish community recovered gradually, being reinforced occasionally by exiles who were returning. The institutional and community life was renewed, the priests were replaced by rabbis and the synagog happened to be the center of the Jewish communities, as it is demonstrated by the ruins of synagogs found in Capernaum, Korazín, Baram, Gamla and other places. The Halajá (religious law) happened to be the common bond between the Jews and was transmitted from generation to generation.
The Halajá is the set of laws that has guided the Jewish life in the whole world from the post-Biblical times. It treats on the religious obligations of the Jews, so much in his relations between them as in his ritual conduct and understands practically all the aspects of the human behavior - birth and marriage, happiness and sorrows, agriculture and commerce, ethics and theology. Caused in the Bible, the authority halájica bases on the Talmud, the compendium of law and Jewish erudition (that it finishes approximately in the year 400), which the Mishná comprises - the first written compilation of the Oral Law (codified approximately in the year 210), and the Guemará, a making of the Mishná. To provide a practical handlebar of the Halajá, religious students prepared diverse concise and systematical compendia, from the Ist and IInd centuries. Between most authorized of these codifications there is counted Shulján Aruj written by Yosef Caro in Safed (Tzfat) in the XVIth century.
Source: MFA - Foreign Office of Israel