Information of Israel
Information of Israel
Israel is both a country and a people. The history of the Jewish people and his roots in the Earth of Israel they spread throughout 35 centuries. In this ground there was forged his national, religious and cultural identity; here one has made his physical presence real in constant form across the centuries, still later that the majority saw forced to go into exile. With the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Jewish, lost sovereignty almost 2000 years ago, it was renewed.
Israel is placed in the Middle East, along the Mediterranean Sea; it borders on the Lebanon, Syria, Jordan and the Egypt. It serves as bridge to three continents: Europe, Asia and Africa.
It is a long and narrow strip, it has about 470 Km. of length and 135 Km. of breadth in his most wide part.
Although child in surface, Israel has the topographic characteristics of the whole continent, from high and wooded, green areas and fertile vales up to desert mountainous areas, and from a coastal plain up to a vale of the semitropical Jordan and the Dead Sea, the rock bottom of the ground. Approximately half of the territory of the country is semiarid.
Israel is characterized by the put in the sun of his climate, with a rainy station that goes from November until April. The rain precipitation changes of 500-1250 mm. in the north at least of 25 mm. in the distant south. The regional climatic conditions change greatly: humid and benign summers and rainy winters in the coastal zone; warm and dry summers and winters moderately cold with rain and occasional snow in the mountainous area; warm and dry summers and agreeable winters in the vale of the Jordan; and semiarid conditions, with warm days and cold nights in the south.
Flora and Fauna:
The rich variety of the flora and the fauna of Israel is reflected both in his geographical situation and in the variety of his topographic situation and climate. There are more than 500 classes of birds; 200 species of mammals and reptiles, and 2.00 species of plants (00 of which are original of Israel). In the country nearly 00 nature reserves have been established, and 65 national parks that comprise an almost 1.000 Km surface. squares.
The water scarcity in the region has generated enormous efforts for maximalizar the use of the available water and to look for new sources. In the decade of 190 there were integrated to only one national network, the National Aqueduct, all the sources of fresh water of the country. This aqueduct takes the water of the north to the center and on the semiarid south. At present there are developing new methods for the use of new sources included the sowing of clouds, the recycling of the served waters and the desalination of the water
Israel is an immigration country. From his incepción in 1948, his population has increased 7 times, more than six million inhabitants at present, and understands a varied mosaic of ethnic backgrounds, idiosincracias and traditions. The Jewish population reaches 78,5 per cent of the whole; not Jewish, in most cases Arab population, reaches 21,5 per cent.
Forms of Life:
About 91 per cent of the population of Israel, does he live in nearly 200 urban centers, some of which got up in historical places known about the antig? age. Close to 5 per cent they are members of two singular cooperative frames: the kibbutz and the moshav.
Jerusalem, the capital (pob. 675.000), it has been the historical, spiritual and national center of the Jewish people since king David was doing capital of his kingdom, approximately 3000 years ago. Nowadays it is a flourishing and vibrant metropolis; head office of the government. It is the biggest city of Israel.
Tel Aviv (pob. 30.000), it was founded in 1909 like the first Jewish city in the modern times, it is nowadays the industrial, commercial, financial and cultural center of the country.
Haifa (pob. 272.000) is a coastal city known from the ancient times. It is a port of deep waters on the Mediterranean and the industrial and commercial area of the north area of Israel.
Beer Sheva (pob. 180.000) remembered in the Bible like center of the patriarchs, it is nowadays the biggest urban center in the south. It provides of administrative, economic services, of health, educational and cultural to the whole region.
System of Government:
Israel is a parliamentary democracy which powers are the legislative one, the executive and the judicial one. The head of the state is the president, whose functions are principally protocolares and formal, symbolizing the unit and sovereignty of the state. The Knéset, legislative authority of Israel, is a parliament únicameral of 120 members that it produces in plenary meetings and across 0 permanent commissions. His members are elect every four years in general and national elections.
The Government (the ministers' office) is in charge of administering the internal and exterior matters. It is headed by a prime minister and is responsible in collective form before the Knéset.
Education and Science:
The educational attendance is obligatory from five year of age, and free up to the 18. Practically all the three and four-year-old age children are present at some type of preschool program. The average of years of study of the population is 12,1.
The institutions of higher education of Israel include universities, which offer a wide scale of areas of study in sciences and humanities education, and constitute institutions of investigation of world reputation; academies, which offer academic courses and vocational schools. The high scientific level of research and development of the country and his application compensate the natural resources scarcity.
Law of Insurance Nacionl of Health, in validity from January, 1995, provides a uniform basket of medical services, which includes hospitalization, for all the inhabitants of Israel. All the medical services keep on being provided by four organizations of medical attention of the country.
The life expectation is more than 81,2 years for the woman and of almost 77,3 years for the man, while the infant mortality is 5,3 for thousand living births. The doctors' proportion in the whole of the population and the number of specialists is compared favorably with those of the most developed countries.
Work and Social welfare:
The social service system is based on a legislation that provides protection to the workpeople and a wide scale of national and community services including attention to the elders, assistance to families uniparentales, you programme for children and young people, agencies of adoption, and prevention and treatment of the alcoholism and the drug addiction.
The Institute of National Insurance provides all the permanent residents (even for not citizens) with a wide scale of benefits, which include insurance of unemployment, oldage pensions, pensions for relatives, allocations and bonuses for maternity, allocations for children, supplementary payments to the income, etc.
GDP $ 103,7 millions
($ 0.800 per cápita)
Exports, goods and services $ 38,4 billions
Imports, goods and services $ 47,5 millions
The industry of Israel centers on the products manufacture with a high aggregate value that are based principally on technological innovations. These products include medical electronics, agrotecnología, telecommunications, hardware and software, solar energy, food processing and chemicals.
The agriculture of Israel is the result of a long struggle against the hard and adverse conditions and of the maximum employment of the scarce water and cultivable ground. Nowadays, the agriculture represents close to one 1,5 % of the PNB and 2,2 % of the exports. Israel produces 93 % of his needs for feeding, which complement each other with the import of grains, oily seeds, meat, coffee, cocoa and sugar, which are covered fully with the wide products variety for the exportation.
Commercial relations are supported with countries of six continents. About 56 % of the imports and of 36 % of the exports is carried out with Europe, in the frame of the agreement of free trade of Israel with the European Union (reached in 1975). A similar agreement was signed by the United States (1985), which commerce with Israel constitutes 20 % of the Israeli imports and 35 % of his exports.
Thousands of years of history, the concentration of Jews of more than 70 countries, a society formed by multiethnic communities that live through one along with other one, and a flow without end that comes for conduit of the satellite and the television for cables, contribute to the development of an Israeli culture that reflects the world elements and at the same time he tries to look for his own identity. What it characterizes to Israel is a cultural expression across the arts that is so changed as the people wishes it, with literary expressions, theater, concerts, programs of radio and television, recreation, museums and art galleries for every interest and taste.
The official languages of the country are the Hebrew and the Arabic, but in the streets of the country many other languages can be heard. The Hebrew, language of the Bible confined during long time to the literature and the liturgy, was re-lived one century ago, accompanying the renewal of the Jewish life in the country.
Thousands of years of history, the concentration of Jews of more than 70 countries, a society formed by multiethnic communities that live through one along with other one, and a flow without end that comes by means of the satellite and the cable television, contribute to the development of an Israeli culture that reflects the world elements and at the same time he tries to look for his own identity. What it characterizes to Israel is a cultural expression across the arts that is so changed as the people wishes it, with literary expressions, theater, concerts, programs of radio and television, recreation, museums and art galleries for every interest and taste.
The official languages of the country are the Hebrew and the Arabic, but in the streets of the country many other languages can be heard. The Hebrew, language of the Bible confined during long time only to the literature and the liturgy, was re-lived one century ago, accompanying the renewal of the Jewish life in the country.